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Science Final Part 2

7th grade final
Chapters 1-5 and 15-17
There are repeats of words but I typed them again according to the chapters.

Terms

undefined, object
copy deck
radioactive elements
unstable elements that decay
atrium
the two upper chambers of the heart and receives blood
relative dating
to determine which of two fossils is older
cytoplasm
the region between the cell membrane and the nucleus
fermentation
an energy-releasing process that does not require oxygen
amino acids
protein molecules are made up of smaller molecules
ligaments
the bones in moveable joints are held together by strong connective tissues
manipulated variable
the one factor that the scientist changes
cast
a copy of the shape of the organism that made the mold
glucose
the major source of energy for your body's cells
chloroplasts
capture energy from sunlight and use it to produce food for the cell
chromatid
each identical rod, or strand, of the chromosome
coronary arteries
carry blood to the heart itself
epithelial tissue
covers the surfaces of your body, inside and out
unsaturated fats
are usually liquid at room temperature
villi
millions of tiny finger-shaped structures
epidermis
the outermost layer of the skin
meiosis
the process by which the numbers of chromosomes is reduced by half to form sex cells
pacemaker
a group of cells located in the right atrium, send out signals that make the heart muscle contract
phenotype
physical appearance, or its visible traits
hybrids
have two different alleles for the trait
Percent Daily Value
indicates how the nutritional content of one serving fits into the diet of a person who consumes a total of 2,000 Calories a day
force
a push or pull
arteries
blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart
magnification
the ability to make things look larger than they are
evolution
gradual change in a species over time
compound
when two or more elements combine chemically
cytoplasm
the area between the cell membrane and the nucleus
pores
openings in the skin where perspirations reaches
probability
the likelihood that a particular event will occur
chromosome
each double rod of condensed chromatin
prokaryotes
organisms whose cells lack a nucleus
fossil
the preserved remains or traces of an organism that lived in the past
traits
physical characteristics
karyotype
a picture of all the chromosomes in a cell
multiple alleles
three or more forms of a gene that code for a single trait
genotype
genetic makeup or allele combinations
chromatin
they contain the genetic material, the instructions that direct the functions of a cell
liver
located in the upper portion of the abdomen and is the largest and heaviest organ inside the body
development
the process of change that occurs during an organism's life to produce a more complex organism
carrier
a person who has one recessive allele for a trait and one dominant allele
fiber
a complex carbohydrate found in plant foods
inorganic compounds
compounds that don't contain the element carbon
saturated fats
are usually solid at room temperature
variation
any difference between individuals of the same species
genes
factors that control traits
Food Guide Pyramid
developed by nutritionists to help people plan a healthy diet
blood transfusion
transference of blood from one person to another
carbohydrates
which are composed of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen
Golgi bodies
receive proteins and other newly formed materials from the e.r., package them, and distribute them to other parts of the cell
involuntary muscles
muscles that are not under your conscious control
stomach
a J-shaped, muscular pouch located in the abdomen
atherosclerosis
a condition in which an artery wall thickens as a result of the buildup of fatty materials
clone
is an organism that is genetically identical to the organism from which is was produced
cell membrane
forms the outside boundary of the cell
veins
vessels that carry blood back to the heart
nucleic acid
very large organic molecules made of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and phosphorus
active transport
movement of materials through a cell membrane using energy
cell
the basic unit of structure and function in an organism
sedimentary rock
Layers of sediments build up and cover dead organism over millions of years
heart attack
when blood flow to part of the heart muscle is blocked
homeostatis
process by which an organism's internal environment is kept stable in spite of changes in the external environment
heart
a hollow, muscular organ that pumps blood throughout the body
ventricle
the two lower chambers of the heart and pumps blood out of the heart
pancreas
a triangular organ that lies between the stomach and the first part of the small intestine
mitosis
the stage during which the cell's nucleus divides into two new nuclei
mutation
any change that occurs in a gene or chromosome
platelets
cell fragments that play an important part in forming blood clots
mitochondria
the "powerhouses" of the cell because they produce most of the energy the cell needs to carry out its functions
plasma
the top layer liquid part of blood
stomata
carbon dioxide enters the plant through small openings on the undersides of the leaves
peristalsis
involuntary waves of muscle contraction
autotrophs
organisms that can make their own food
replication
the cell makes a copy of the DNA in its nucleus
codominance
the alleles are neither dominant or recessive
cancer
a disease in which some body cells divide uncontrollably
enzyme
a type of protein that speeds up a chemical reaction in a living thing
cell membrane
inside cell walls
enzyme
a protein that speeds up chemical reactions in the body
element
is any substance smallest unit of an element is called an atom
hemoglobin
an iron-containing protein that binds chemically to oxygen molecules
fats
high-energy nutrients that are composed of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen
RNA
plays an important role in the production of proteins and found in the cytoplasm and nucleus
osteoporosis
a condition in which the body's bones become weak and break easily
saliva
the fluid released when your mouth waters
resolution
the ability to clearly distinguish the individual parts of an object
genetic engineering
genes from one organism are transferred into the DNA of another organism
organ system
a group of organs that work together to perform a major function
DNA
the genetic material that carries information about an organism that is passed from parent to offspring
respiration
when cells need energy , they "withdraw" energy from glucose
chlorophyll
the main pigment found in the chloroplasts of plants
vacuole
the storage are of the cell
branching tree
a diagram that shows how scientists think different groups of organisms are related
gallbladder
the organ that stores bile
organisms
a living thing
purebred
one that always produces offspring with the same form of a trait as the parent
anus
a muscular opening at the end of the rectum
voluntary muscles
muscles that are under your control
nucleus
the control center that directs the cells activities and contains information that determines the cell's characteristics
half-life
the time it takes for half of the atoms in a sample to decay
rectum
the large intestine ends in a short tube
small intestine
the part of the digestive system where most of the chemical digestion takes place
cytokinesis
after mitosis, the final stage of cell cycle
bile
a substance that breaks up fat particles
skeletal muscles
are muscles attached to the bones of your skeleton
messenger RNA
copies the coded message from the DNA in the nucleus, and carries the message into the cytoplasm
large intestine
the last section of the digestive system
red blood cells
take up oxygen in the lungs and deliver it to cells elsewhere in the body
nutrients
the substances in food that provide the raw materials and energy the body needs to carry out all the essential processes
spontaneous generation
the mistaken idea that living things arise from nonliving sources
punctuated equilibria
species evolve during short periods of rapid change
calorie
the amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of one gram of water by one Celsius degree
egg
female sex cell
hypertension
-a disorder in which a person's blood pressure is consistently higher than normal, greater than 140/90
homologous structures
similar structures that related species have inherited from a common ancestor
heterozygous
has two different alleles for a trait
compound microscope
a light microscope that has more than one lens
hybridization
breeders cross two genetically different individuals
capillaries
blood flows into the tiny vessels from the arteries
Fossils
traces of ancient organisms that have been preserved in rock or other substances
genome
all the DNA in one cell of an organism
lymph
fluid inside the lymphatic system
multicellular
organisms that are composed of many cells
nerve tissue
carries messages back and forth between the brain and every other part of the body
joint
a place in the body where two bones come together
inbreeding
involves crossing two individuals that have identical or similar sets of alleles
minerals
nutrients that are not made by living things
lipids
fats, oils, and waxes
cholesterol
a waxy, fatlike substance found only in animal products
diffusion
the process by which molecules move from an area in which they are highly concentrated to an area in which they are less concentrated
microscope
an instrument that makes small objects look larger
ribosomes
small grainlike bodies
adaptation
a trait that helps an organism survive and reproduce
dominant allele
one whose trait always shows up in the organism when the allele is present
melanin
a pigment or colored substance
amino acids
proteins are made up of small units
cardiac muscle
muscle that does not get tired and contracts repeatedly
selectively permeable
that some substances can pass through it while others can't
muscle tissue
makes parts of your body move that can contract, or shorten.
follicles
strands of hair grow within the dermis in structures
response
an action or change in behavior
genetics
the scientific study of heredity
species
a group of similar organisms that can mate with each other and produce fertile offspring
interphase
first stage of cell cycle
carbohydrate
an energy-rich organic compound made of the elements carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
diffusion
the process by which molecules trend to move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
marrow
spaces in bone contain a soft connective tissue
organelles
tiny cell structures that carry out specific functions within the cell
lymph nodes
small knobs of tissue
lysosomes
small round structures that contain chemicals that break down large food particles into smaller ones
epiglottis
a flap of tissue that seals off your windpipe
sperm
male sex cell
tendon
a strong connective tissue that attaches muscle to bone
fibrin
series of reactions eventually produces a protein from chemicals released by platelets
sphygmomanometer
instrument used to measure blood pressure
osmosis
the diffusion of water molecules through a selectively permeable membrane
dermis
the lower layer of the skin
smooth muscles
are involuntary muscles
heredity
the passing of traits from parents to offspring
vitamins
helper molecules in a variety of chemical reactions within the body
selective breeding
process of selecting a few organisms with desired traits to serve as parents of the next generation
fossil record
the millions of fossils that scientists have collected
acne
a bacterial infection of the skin that can be difficult to control
convex lens
a lens with this curved shape
gradualism
evolution occurs slowly but steadily
pigments
colored chemical compounds that absorb light
unicellular
single-celled organisms
recessive allele
whenever dominant allele is present, it is masked or covered up
blood pressure
blood exerts a pressure against the walls of blood vessels
genetic disorder
an abnormal condition that a person inherits through genes or chromosomes
natural selection
the process by which individuals that are better adapted to their environment are more likely to survive and reproduce than other members of the same species
cardiovascular system
aka circulatory system, consists of the heart, blood vessels, and blood
controlled experiment
a scientist carries out two tests that are identical in every respect except for one factor
aorta
the largest artery in the body
eukaryotes
organisms whose cells contain a nucleus
cell wall
a rigid layer of nonliving material that surrounds the cells of plants and some other organisms
pressure
the force that something exerts over a given area
cell cycle
the regular sequence of growth and division that cells undergo
sex-linked genes
genes on the X and Y chromosomes because their alleles are passed from parent to child on a sex chromosome
white blood cells
body's disease fighters
amniocentesis
before baby is born, doctor can use this procedure to determine whether the baby will have some genetic disorders
mold
a hollow space in sediment in the shape of an organism or part of an organism
stress
the reaction of your body and mind to threatening, challenging, or disturbing events
connective tissue
provides support for your body and connects all its parts
scientific theory
a well-tested concept that explains a wide range of observations
alleles
different forms of a gene
transfer RNA
carries amino acids and adds them to the growing protein
valve
a flap of tissue that prevents blood from flowing backward
proteins
large organic molecules made of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and in some cases, sulfur
esophagus
a muscular tube that connects the mouth to the stomach
absorption
the process by which nutrient molecules pass through the wall of your digestive system into your blood
reproduce
produce offspring that are similar to the parents
petrified fossils
minerals that dissolved in water soak into buried remains and gradually, the minerals replace the remains, changing them into rocks
stimulus (plural stimuli)
a change in an organism's surroundings that causes the organism to react
heterotrophs
organisms that cannot make their own food
mucus
a thick, slippery substance produced by the body
endoplasmic reticulum (e.r.)
carry proteins and other materials from one part of the cell to another
molecule
the smallest unit of most compounds
cartilage
a connective tissue that is more flexible than bone
organ
a structure that is composed of different kinds of tissues
photosynthesis
the process by which a cell captures the energy in sunlight and uses it to make food
homeostasis
maintenance of stable internal conditions despite changes in the surroundings
lymphatic system
a network of veinlike vessels that returns the fluid to the bloodstream
absolute dating
to determine the actual age of fossils
gene therapy
involves inserting working copies of a gene directly into the cells of a person with a genetic disorder
homozygous
has two identical alleles for a trait
passive transport
the movement of materials through a cell membrane without using energy

Deck Info

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