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bio vocab 2 2


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includes tarsiers, prosimians (lemurs and lorises), and anthropoids (monkeys, apes, and humans)
all extinct human-like species and modern humans
upright walking - which frees hands for novel tasks
the sum of all behavioral patterns of a social group, passed on through generations by way of learning and symbolic behavior
members of the genus Homo
a donor cell's sex pilus latches onto a recipient cell and then retracts, pulling it close
prokaryotic conjugation
a small, self-replicating circle of DNA with just a few genes
infectious, disease-causing agents that invade target species and multiply in or on them
like the first eukaryotic cells - they have a nucleus, but most are single-celled organisms (parasites, decomposers, etc.)
heterotrophic protists that live as single cells, and move using one or more flagella
flagellated protozoans
among microbes, it is a protective covering that forms from cell secretions. Cells can survive outside the host body, inside these
these get nutrients from nonliving organic material. Most fungi are these.
some fungi live in a mutually beneficial partnership with a photosynthetic organism that supplies the fungus with nutrients. This relationship is called...
the vegetative part of a fungus, consisting of a network of branched filaments
the filament in a mycelium
a noncellular infectious agent with 2 characteristics: a protein coat wrapped around genetic material, and a few enzymes. It cannot reproduce itself, instead, the host cell is tricked into making copies of it
viruses that infect bacteria
the removal of all trees from large tracks of land
a haploid gamete-making body
after 2 gametes fuse at fertilazation and become diploid zygote forms, it grows and develops into this...
produced by a sporophyte, it is a resting structure that withstands unfavorable environmental conditions, as well as giving rise to new gameophytes
in embryos, cell divisions give rise to these 3 primary tissues...
ectoderm, endoderm, and in most cases, mesoderm
animals that have a backbone
backboneless animals (account for most species)
tiny, soft-bodied species shaped like disks, fronds, and blobs that were living on or in seafloor sediments by 610 million years ago
when body parts are arrayed around a central point
radial symmetry
body parts that mirror eachother
bilateral symmetry
a concentration of nerve and sensory cells in the anterior end of the body. Most bilateral groups have this
bilateral animals that have 4 unique features that appear in embryos and often persist into adulthood
a group of organisms that have a chamber of cartilage or bone that encloses the brain. This includes fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals
the hinged, bony feeding structure in some organisms
segments of the internal skeleton that are made of bone or cartilage
appendages that help propel, stabalize, and guide the fish body through water
respiratory organs with moist, thin folds and adjacent blood vessels
internally moistened sacs for gas exchange
model that explains for different patterns (rapid then gradual) of speciation
puntuation model of speciation
a burst of divergences from a single lineage. It gives rise to many new species
adaptive radiation
A set of different niches that become filled typically with by a related group of species. Adaptive radiation requires these
adaptive zones
A way for a species to enter an adaptive zone: a chance modification in some body structure or function gives it the opportunity to exploit the new environment more efficiently
key innovation
an irrevable loss of a species
catastrophic losses of entire families or other groups
mass extinction
plant stems together with leaves. Above ground.
plant structures that grow downward and outward through soil
localized regions of actively dividing cells that give rise to plant tissues
a kind of meristem that is in shoot and root tips, where all plant parts begin lengthening
apical meristem
a kind of meristem that increases the thickness of stems and roots
lateral meristems
a kind of plant tissue that makes up the most of the soft, new primary growth of roots, stems, leaves, and flowers.
a kind of plant tissue that forms patches or rings in many lengthening stems and leaf stalks
a kind of plant tissue that gains strength to resist compression from fungal attacks
a vascular tissue that conducts water and dissolved mineral ions, and it structurally supports the plant
a vascular tissue that conducts sugars and other organic solutes
a dermal tissue that is typically a single layer of cells that secrete waxes and cutin onto their wall
a dermal tissue that is a covering that helps the plant conserve water and deflect attacks by some pathogens. This is formed from empidermal cell secretions
a small gap that forms across the epidermis when guard cells swell and move apart
leaflike structures that store or absorb food for plant embryos
multistranded cords that thread lengthwise through all ground tissue systems inside the stem
vascular bundles
a sugar factory that has many photosynthetic cells. Comes in many different shapes and sizes
vascular bundles in leaves
a shoot's main zone of primary growth. It is a undeveloped shoot of meristem tissue
these plants conserve water by opening their stomata at night. The next day, when their stomata closes, they use carbon dioxide in PS. An example is cacti
CAM plants
organic compounds rapidly flow through these tubes. They are located in phloem.
sieve tubes
these cells load organic compounds into neighboring sieve tubes
companion cells
the process that moves sucrose and all other dissolved compounds through the phloem of a vascular plant. High pressure drives this process
this theory says that organic compounds flow from a source to a sink because internal pressure builds up at the source end of the sieve tube system and pushes the solute-rich solution on toward any sink where solutes are being removed
pressure flow theory
molecules that capture light energy. They are the bridges from sunlight to PS. Each kind can absorb only specific wavelengths of light, and the rest are transmitted thru the molecule or reflected by it
the first stage of reaction in PS, when sunlight is converted to chemical bond energy of ATP
light-dependent reactions
the 2nd stage of reaction in PS, when glucose is made
light-independent reactions
the organelles of PS in all plants and certain protists
the semifluid interior of the chloroplast that is enclosed by 2 outer membranes
this forms a compartment inside the stroma. It folds back on itself into what often looks like stacks of pancakes. The light-dependent reactions occur in this
thylakoid membrane
arrays of hundreds of pigments and other molecules that are "reaction centers." Chloroplasts have 2 types.
a type of active transport protein
ATP synthases
a pathway that runs inside the stroma of chloroplasts. Sugars are formed in this
Calvin-Benson cycle
this enzyme contributes to the starting of the Calvin-Benson cycle
the process of securing carbon from the environment by incorporating it into a stable organic compound
carbon fixation
plants who's photosynthetic cells are exposed to too much O2 and too little CO2, making it hard to produce sugar
C3 plants
these plants fix carbon twice, and can make more sugar on dry days
C4 plants
the breaking down of carbohydrates in pathways that do not use O2 to make ATP
a breakdown pathway that uses O2 to extract energy very efficiently from glucose and other carbs
aerobic respiration
the reaction where enzymes rearrange a 6-carbon glucose molecule into 2 pyruvic molecules. Few ATP are formed.
an organic compound with a 3-carbon backbone
in this reaction enzymes break down pyruvate to CO2 and H2O. Few ATP are formed.
Krebs cycle
in this reaction O2 inside the mitochondrion accepts electrons and H2 at the end of the chains, forming H2O. Produces a lot of ATP
electron transfer phosphorylation
the 1st energy-releasing step of glycolsis, when 4 ATP are formed
substrate-level phosphorylation
the behavior is performed without having first been learned by actual experience in the environment
instinctive behavior
a program of coordinated muscle activity that will run to completion independently of feedback from the environment. This occurs after an organism recognizes a certain sign stimuli (one or two simple, well-defined environmental cues)
fixed action pattern
when organisms process info about experiences and use it to change or vary responses to stimuli
learned behavior
a form of learning triggered by exposure to a simple stimulus during a sensitive period, usually early in life
intraspecific interactions that involve mixes of instinctive and learned behaviors by which individuals send and respond to cues. These have unambiguous meaning for a species
communication signals
a simple society formed (not consciously) by reproductive self-interest
selfish herd
genes associated with altruism can be favored by selection if they lead to behavior that will increase the number of offspring by an altruit's closest relatives
inclusive fitness
these are released from axon endings of neurons and act swiftly on target cells by diffusing across a tiny space between them
these molecules modify the conditions in nearby tissues
local signaling molecules
relays signals from outside the cell to target molecules inside the cell
second messenger
specialized reproductive shoots of a diploid sporophyte
a plant body that grows by mitotic division of a fertilized egg, leads to the formation of male and female gametophytes
male reproductive parts of a flower. They usually consist of an anther on top of a thin stalk of filament
the top part of a stamen that has 2-6 pairs of pollen sacs
a flower's female reproductive parts. The upper portion of this is the stigma
the carpel's lower, swollen portion
structures in a which a haploid, egg-producing female gametophyte forms. Inside the ovary
air currents, animals, or any other agent that transfers pollen grains from male to female reproductive parts of flowering plants
leads to the production of male gametophytes
leads to the production of female gametophyte
triploid nutritive tissue in the seeds of flowering plants
when one pollen grain lands on a receptive stigma, which leads to germination
seed leaves
the embryo, its food reserves, and the seed coat that now constitutes the mature ovule in this self-contained package

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