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Bio110 midterm3

Terms

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cyanobacteria
a blue-green photosynthetic bacterium capable of nitrogen fixation that was once thought to be algae
inhibitor
a substance that decreases the rate of or stops completely a chemical reaction
potential energy
the energy possessed by a body as a result of its position or condition rather than its motion
Krebs cycle
a series of aerobic enzymatic reactions that involve the breakdown of glucose into CO2 and H2O to release ATP
parasitism
symbiosis in which one organism is benefitted and the other is harmed
isotope
one of two or more atoms with the same atomic number (identity) but different numbers of neutrons
extant
still in existence (opposite of extinct)
photon
a quantum of electromagnetic energy
oxidation
a chemical reaction in which an atom or ion loses elections, thus undergoing an increase in positive charge
endergonic reaction
a reaction that requires energy
thylakoid
a saclike structure that contains the chlorophyll in chloroplasts and are arranged in stacks
serial endosymbiosis theory
says cellular evolution of eukaryotes arouse through the endosymbiotic union of engulfed bacteria with a precursor eukaryotic cell
sedimentary rock
rock that has formed through the deposition and solidification of sediment, especially that transported by water, ice and wind. Ususally deposited in layers and contains fossils
chemiosmosis
the diffusion of ions across a semi-permeable membrane
cytosol
the aqueous part of the cytoplasm within which various particles are sspended
capsule
a mucopolysaccharide outer shell enveloping certain bacteria
mitochondrial matrix
a structure in the mitochondria that contains soluble enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of pyruvate and other small organic molecules
grana
stacked, membranous structures within chloroplasts that contain chlorophyll and are the site of light reactions
cell wall
the outermost layer of cells in plants, bacteria, fungi and many algae that gives shape to cells and protects from infection. In plants, usually composed of cellulose
chloroplast
a chlorophyll containing plastids found in algal and green plant cells
ATP
an organic compound that serves as a source of energy for many metabolic processes through energy release
anaerobic respiration
respiration in the absence of oxygen
peptidoglycan
a polymer found in the cell walls of prokaryotes that consists of polysaccharide and peptide chains in a strong molecular network
cyanobacteria
any of a phylum of photosynthetic bacteria that live in water or damp soil and were once thought to be plants due to the presence of chlorophyll and photosynthetic membranes. Utilize nitrogen
precambrian era
first era of time (4.6-4 billion years ago)
photochemistry
the chemistry of the effects of light on chemical systems
sporulation
formation of spores
free
free
nitrogen fixation
the conversion of atmospheric nitrogen into compounds that plants and other organisms can assimilate
isomer
a compound that exists in forms having different arrangements of atoms but the same molecular weight
enthalpy
a measure of the chance in internal energy of a system
kinetic energy
the energy possessed by a body because of its motion
endosymbiosis
symbiosis in which one symbiont lives within the body of the other
endotoxin
a toxin produced by certain bacteria and released upon destruction of the bacterial cell
pyruvate
a salt, ester or ionized form of pyruvic acid
pangaea
hypothetical landmass that existed when all continents were joined from about 300-200 million years ago
opportunistic infection
an infection by a microorganism that normally does not cause disease but becomes pathogenic when the body's immune system is impaired and unable to fight off infection
taxis
the responsive movement of a motile organisms or cell toward or away from an external stimulus
mutualism
symbiosis in which both organisms are benefitted
energy
the capacity to do work
catalyst
a substance that causes of accelerates a chemical reaction without itself being affected
redox
a chemical reaction in which an atom or ion loses electrons to another atom or ion
mesozoic era
230-63 million years ago
mechanical work
the amount of energy transferred by a force
nitrogen cycle
the continuous process by which nitrogen is exchanged between organisms and the environment
osmosis
the diffusion of fluids across a semipermeable membrane
active site
the part of the enzyme that interacts with the substrate during catalytic activity
plasma membrane
the semipermeable membrane that encloses the cytoplasm of a cell
free energy
the portion of total energy that can be used for work
alcohol fermentation
a process in which glucose gets converted to alcohol and carbon dioxide
nodule
a small, knob-like outgrowth found on the roots of many legumes that have been infected with nitrogen-fixing bacteria
feedback stimulation
feedback that results in amplification of the output signal
cellular respiration
the process of cell catabolism in which cells turn food into usable energy in the form of ATP
facultative anaerobe
an organism that can survive in the absence or presence of atmospheric oxygen
ATP synthase
name for an enzyme that can synthesize ATP from ADP and P
geological time scale
a chronological system of rock layers to time
host
the plant or animal on or in which another organism lives
radiocarbondating
determination of the age of objects of organic origin by measurement of the radioactivity of the carbon content
radiometric dating
any method of determining the age of earth materials based on measurement of either short-lived radioactive elements or the amount of a long-lived radioactive element plus its decay product
electronegativity
the tendency of an atom or radial to attract electrons in the formation of an ionic bond
kinase
enzymes that catalyze transfer of a phosphate group from a donor such as ATP to an acceptor
phosphofructokinase
an enzyme that functions in carbohydrate metabolism and glycolysis by catalyzing the transfer of a second phosphate to fructose
feedback inhibition
the inhibition of activity due to the production of an end product
NAD+
a coenzyme used alternately with NADH as an oxidizing or reducing agent in metabolic reactions
activation energy
the energy that a system must acquire before a process can occur
G3P
a chemical compound that acts as an intermediate in photosynthesis
rhizobia
any of several rod-shaped bacteria of the genus rhizobium found as symbiotic nitrogen fixers in nodules on the roots of legumes
electron-transport chain
a process that couples a chemical reaction between an electron donor (such as NADH_ and an electron acceptor (such as NAD+) to the transfer of H+ ions across a membrane through a set of mediation biochemical reactions
allosteric enzyme
an enzyme which contains a region to which small regulatory molecules may bind in addition to and separate from the substrate binding site, thereby affecting catalytic activity
Z-scheme
the initial stage of the photosynthetic system
NADH
reduced form of NAD+
algae
any of various, chiefly aquatic eukaryotic, photosynthetic organisms, ranging in size from single-celled forms to the giant kelp
lactic acid fermentation
a biological process by which sugars are broken down into waste product fermental acid, yielding cellular energy
commensalism
symbiosis in which one is helped and the other is unaffected
enzyme
cell proteins that catalyze organismal metabolic processes
energy coupling
free energy that is transferred from one exergonic reaction to one endergonic reaction
carotenoid
any of a class of yellow to red pigments found especially in plants, algae and photosynthetic bacteria
metabolism
the sum of all physical and chemical processes in an organism
symbiosis
the cohabitation of two dissimilar organisms
dendrochronology
the study of growth rings in trees for the purpose of analyzing post-climate conditions or determining the dates of past events
photosynthesis
synthesis of carbohydrates from CO2 and H20 using light as an energy source with oxygen as a byproduct
legume
a pod that splits into two halves
phosphofructokinase
allosteric enzyme that catalyzes the production of ATP and citrate and is inhibited by high levels of both
saprobe
an organism that derives its nourishment from nonliving or decaying organic matter
fossil
the remains or imprint of an organism from a previous geological time
entropy
the amount of energy in a system not available to do work (disorder)
electromagnetic radiation
energy in the form of transverse magnetic and electric waves
exothermic reaction
a reaction that releases heat
non-spontaneous reaction
a reaction that cannot occur without the input of work from an external source
oxidative phosphorylation
the aerobic synthesis of ATP from ADP and P
antibiotic
destroying or preventing the inception or continuance of life
stomata
minute pores in the epidermis of a leaf or stem through which gases and water vapor pass
obligate anaerobe
an organisms that cannot survive in the presence of oxygen
endothermic reaction
a reaction that requires heat
voltage
a measure of the difference in electrical potential between two objects, expressed in volts
RuBP
a 5-carbon sugar that combines with CO2 in one of the stages of photosynthesis
exotoxin
a toxin secreted by living microorganisms and released into the environment in which they grow
enzyme-substrate complex
particle formed when a substrate binds to its enzyme
rubisco
an enzyme that fixes carbon from gaseous CO2 to a 5-carbon sugar synthesized inside the plant
allosteric regulation
a mechanism by which an event in one place of a protein structure causes an effect at another site
continental drift
the lateral movement of continents resulting from the movement of crustal plates
pigment
molecule that can absorb energy from visible light
half-life
the time required for one half of the atoms of a given amount of a radioactive substance to disintegrate
spontaneous reaction
a reaction that causes a release in free energy and occurs without being driven by an outside source
flagellum
s long, thread-like appendage of some cells that functions in locomotion
cenozoic era
approximately the last 63 million years
chromatography
a technique used to separate the components of a chemical mixture
bioremediation
the use of biological agents such as bacteria or plants, to remove or neutralize contaminants, as in polluted soil or water
thermodynamics
the science concerned with the relations between heat and mechanical energy or work and the conversion of one into the other
coenzyme
a nonprotein organic substance that usually contains a vitamin or mineral and combines with a specific protein (apoenzyme) to form an active enzyme system
endospore
a rounded, inactive form that certain bacteria assume under conditions of extreme temperature, dryness, or lack of food. The bacterium develops a waterproof cell wall that protects it form being dried out or damaged
obligate aerobe
an organism such as a bacteria that can live only in the presence of oxygen
glycolysis
the breakdown of carbohydrates with the release of energy and the production of lactic or pyruvic acid
plate tectonics
a theory that the earth's lithosphere (crust and upper mantle) is divided into a number of large, platelike sections that move as distinct masses over the relatively plastic athenosphere
paleozoic era
544-230 million years ago
reduction
a chemical reaction in which an atom or ion gains electrons
terminal electron acceptor
the place where energy-rich electrons finally reside (in aerobic respiration, it is usually oxygen, which leads to the formation of water)
photophosphorylation
phosphorylation that utilizes light as its source of energy in the formation of ATP
FAD
redox cofactor that can exist as FAD (oxidized form) or FADH2 (reduced form)
microsymbiont
lives inside the host in a symbiotic relationship
chlorophyll
a green coloring matter of leaves and plants, essential to the production of carbohydrates by photosynthesis and occurring in two forms: bluish black (a) and dark green (b)
carbon cycle
the circulation of carbon atoms in the biosphere as a result of photosynthetic conversion of CO2 into complex organic compounds by plants, which are somsumed by other organisms. The carbon retyres to the atmosphere in the form of CO2 as a result of cellular respiration by eukaryotes
symbiont
an organism living in a state of symbiosis
substrate
the substance on which an enzyme acts
calvin cycle
a series of chemical reactions in which carbon is broken away from gaseous CO2 and fixed as organic carbon in compounds that are ultimately used to make sugars and starch as food
anaerobic
living in the absence of air or free oxygen
substrate-level phosphorylation
a type of chemical reaction that results in the formation of ATP by direct transfer of a phosphate group to ATP from a reactive intermediate
exergonic reaction
a reaction that released energy
lipopolysaccharides
large molecules consisting of a lipid and a polysaccharide joined by a covalent bond. Found in the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria
fermentation
the process by which complex organic compounds such as glucose are broken down by the action of enzymes into simpler substances without the use of oxygen

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