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Science Test Friday 1/18/08

Terms

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radioactivity
changes genetic make up/causes birth defects from battery factories, nuclear powerplants, medical waste, uranium mines, nuclear weapons
types of pollutants
pathogens, oxygen-demanding wastes, water soluble inorganic compounds, inorganic plant nutrients, organic chemicals, sediments, radioactivity, thermal pollution
water-soluble inorganic compounds
nonorganic things dissolved in water, effects crops
Water cycle
In a nutshell: the water moves across the Earth's surface to a body of surface water. Evaporation occurs and the liquid changes to a gas. Condensation occurs and the change from a gas to a liquid is now in place. Infiltration occurs and the water seeps into the ground. During this transpiration occurs along with respiration, the release of water vapor by plants and the release of water vapor from animals
runoff
the movement of water across the Earth's surface
water
most abundant liquid on earth, exists in all three phases (solid, liquid, gas)
water purification devices: wastewater treatment
sewage comes in from the sewer through a barred screen and then enter a grit chamber where solids sink to the bottom then go into the settling tank where more of the solid waste is lowered nad fed though pipes down to a sludge digester and then into asludge drying bed to be disposed of in a landfill or ocean or applied to cropland/pasture or rangeland, the remaining water enters and aeration tank and air is mixed with the water, then the waste goes down to the sludge digester and to the sludge drying bed the remaining water goes into the chlorine disinfection tank where bacteria is killed and then chemicals like Allum could be added but are not necessary, the water then goes to a river or lake or body of water
Evaporation
when a liquid changes to a gas
repiration
release of water vapor from animals
Bond Type
polar covalent bond=intramolecular bonding
porosity
amount of open space in a subject, depends on: particle size, particle shape, and sorting
thermal pollution
(heat pollution) hot water returned to other water that kills fish and carries less oxygen
Nonpoint source: roadways and parking lots
car leak
infiltration
when water seeps into the ground
4 degrees celsius (1g/mL)
Maximum density at this
harms of sediments
to many sediments in water block sunlight therefore plants die, they also stop gilled animals from breathing water and oxygen
surface water
water found at the Earth's surface (rivers, lakes, swamps)
Aquifers
earth material that stores and transmits large amounts of water a good aquifer must be both porous and permeable
Nonpoint source: domestic sources
lawn care, oil, car leak, bad septic
precipitation
the falling of water from the sky to Earth (rain, snow, ice, sleet)
Bond angle
105 degrees
permeability
how much water a subject can transfer depends on: porosity, connections
50-90%
of living things are made of water
10%
Domestic (water use)
good aquifers
sand, gravel, pebbles
Freezing Point
Below 0 degrees Celsius (32 degrees F)
oxygen-demanding wastes
remains or wastes of living things- algae dying is an example
Melting Point
Above 0 degrees Celsius (32 degrees F)
of freshwater .6%
is surface and ground water
10%
Expands by this as it freezes
97%
of water is saltwater
water pollution
not natural, any chemical, biological, or physical change in water quality that has a harmful effect on living things or that makes water unusable for desired uses
pathogens
from leaking septic systems, medical waste, dead animals, living organisms that lead to diseases (bacteria, viruses)
condensation
the change from a gas to a liquid (clouds, fog, and dew)
Physical properties
transparent, odorless, tasteless,almost colorless, exists as a liquid over a wide range of temperatures
examples of point sources
factories, sewage treatment plants, oil wells and tankers
poor aquifers
shall, clay, igneaous rock, metamorphic rocks
Nonpoint source: atmospheric contaminants
smoke, air pollution
Desalinization
the processes of distillation and/or reverse osmosis that purifies water.
of freshwater 2%
are gliaciers and icecaps
sediments
broken up rock from cement factories, farms, quaries, construction
75%
of the earth's surface is covered with water
Formula
H2O
41%
Agricultural (water use)
Nonpoint source: agricultural
pesticides, animal waste, fertilizer, soil erosion (runoff into water)
49%
Industrial (water use)
Nonpoint source: logged areas
run off erosion, roots die and setiment level is increased
Transpiration
release of water vapor by plants
organic chemicals
carbon containing compounds- potroleum is an example, normally comes from businesses and industries
Nonpoint source: septic systems and leaking sewage lines
waste gets into the ground
water purification devices: septic systems
can't flush bad things down and must be cleaned regularly: household waste water goes through pipes into the septic tank which allows the larger solids to settle at the bottom and the greases and oils to rise to the top and are trapped, must be pumped out by manhole then go to the distribution box which sends them to the subsurface disposal system, feeding the water through preforated pipes and then allowing the water to be absorbed by the soil and seep down into the water table
nonpoint sources
widespread and don't come from a specific source
Bond holding together
hydrogen bond=intermolecular bondingt (4-8 molecules per group)
3%
of water is freshwater
of freshwater .4%
is readily available
fertilizer contents
hightrates, phosphates, and limes
inorganic plant nutrients
fertilizers
point sources
coming from a specific source, easier to control; regulated since 1970

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