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Ecology Final 2


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A.G. Tansley
coined the term ecosystem, which acknowledges the inseparable link between biological environment (the community) and the physical environment
Relationship between NPP and latitude
NPP decreases towards the poles
Relationship between NPP and precipitation
NPP increases with precipitation
Relationship between NPP and Temperature
NPP decreases with temperature
Relationship between NPP and actual evapotranspiration
NPP increases with evapotranspiration
Relationship between NPP and nutrient availability
NPP increases with nutrient availability
Zone of Primary Production
Terrestrial: canopy Aquatic: photic zone/surface water
Biogeochemical cycle components
Input, Internal Cycle, Output
Types of biogeochemical cycles
Gaseous Sedimentary
Describe Carbon Cycle
1) Co2 in the atmosphere is taken in by plants 2) photosynthesis occurs 3) bacteria decompose dead matter 4) respiration from bacteria release CO2 5) Process starts over
Anthropogenic influence on carbon cycle
It increases ever year from emissions
Describe Nitrogen Cycle
1) Fixation: gaseous phase converted into usable form by bacteria and cyanobacteria and legumes 2) Ammonification/Mineralization: DOM brakes down to amino acids 3) Nitrification: ammonia is oxidized to nitrate and nitirite 4) Denitrification: nitrates are reduced to gaseous nitrgoen by certain organixsms to obtain oxygen
Phosphorous cycle
soil weathering is primary source
Open Cycle
Inputs and outputs dominate nutrient movement through the system Ex: nitrogen and phosphorous
Closed Cycle
Internal cycling accounts for the majority of nutrient movement Ex: carbon and water cycles
Low nutrient inputs and high nutrient stroage is found in:
cold climates and high latitudes
High nutrient inputs and low nutrient storage is found in:
warm climates and low latitudes
How are biogeochemical systems linked?
They all involve the constituents of organic matter. Leaf has C, N, & P in it.
Terrestrial nutrient cycling
Plant roots collect nutrients from zone of decomposition Plants redraw nutrients from leaves before they drop
Aquatic cycling in summer and spring
stratification of thermocline production limited by nutrient concentration
Aquatic cycling in fall and winter
more uniform temperatures, resulting in turnover and mixing
Primary productivity in polar climates
constant mixing and light limitations lead to highest productivity in summer
Primary productivity in tropical climates
constant stratification reduces productivity
Primary productivity in temperate climates
seasonal light patterns lead to a spike in primary production in late spring
What is water limited by?
How is NO3 made?
microorganisms oxidize ammonium and combine it with O2 to make nitrates
How is NH4 made?
Ammonification: the conversion of organic nitrogen to inorganic state of NH4
What nitrogen mineralization increase after logging?
1) increased decomposition and nitrogen mineralization 2) decrease in uptake of nitrogen as compared to prelogging
After logging, what are the effects of increased radiation and decreased transpiration?
More radiation = higher soil temperature Less transpiration = more soil moisture
Effects of burning?
The increase in irradiance, increases soil temperature, increases mineralization.

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