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ES Midterm


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Birth Reduction Pressures
higher education and equality for women
exponential growth
J curve, death rate surpasses birth rate, oscillation
Premises of evolution
variation occurs in all population, all populations produce excess food, not all offspring reproduce, future ppopulation reflects survivor's traits
global environmentalism
realization that we all share a common environment on the global scale
fan shaped sediment deposit at river mouth
important Marine factors
temperature, sunlight, oxygen, nutrients
ecological footprint
amount of land needed to produce the resources used
environmental health
based on factors that cause disease
Lake Volta
largest man made lake
bays where water from rivers enters oceans
2nd law of thermodynamics
entropy - with each transfer, less energy is available
logistic growth
S curve, growth balances and levels out
Commoner's Laws of Ecology
everything is connected, must go somewhere, nature knows best, no free lunch
Cellular respiration
splits carbon and hydrogen atoms from the sugar molecule and recombines them with oxygen to recreate carbon dioxide and water
competition exclusion
no two species will occupy same niche's resources for very long
social movement that attempts to protect the natural world
major environmental concerns
analytical, creative, logical, reflective
fossil fuel combusiton, acid rain
50-60 degrees N/S
barrier islands
protect inland shores, 20 percent developed, vulnerable to sea level rise
Nitrogen disruption
realeases NOx, legumes, overuse of fertilizers
gene pool diverges becoming a new distingt species
earliest forms of life, stromatolites, responsible for oxygen
infectious disease
caused from pathogens. Ex. Influenza, ecoli, malaria
acute poverty
where 1/5 of the world live with an income of less that 1 dollar per day
elements that make up most organisms
O, C, H, N
Ecological disease
effects domestic animals and wildlife. Ex. Chronic Wasting disease in deer, behavior changes, weight loss, always fatal
10 most populated countries
china, india, usa, nigeria, japan, brazil, indonesia, russia, bangladesh
why biodiversity is important
food, medicine, ecological, existence value, aesthetic, culture
standing water prat of the year (bogs, fens, swamp, marsh)
emergent disease
disease not known or absent for 20 years. Ex. HIV/AIDS, Ebola, West Nile
increase in concentration of a substance
cold or warm, always dry
levels of biodiversity
genetic, species, ecological
TR, Pinchot
mass extinction events
50-95 percent extinct - huge increse due to industrialization
Biosphere 2
failed to duplicate earth's life support system
key plant nutrient crtical for cell function
E.O. Wilson
HIPPO explanation for extinction
Hydrologic cycle
medium for metabolic process, aids the flow of nutrients, distributes heat globally
complete state of physical, mental, and social well being
Earth's orgin
4.5 billion years
sustainable development
meething the needs of the present without compromising future needs
centers of greatest biodiversity
10-15 percent, rainforests and coral reefs
important Terrestrial factors
Muir, Leopold
deforestation, overfertilization in water, eutrophication
important in proteins
Carbon disruption
burning fuels, deforestation, cement making
importance of coral reefs
oldest, most diverse, most productive ecosystems
groups of terrestrial biomes
tropical, temperate, cold, desert
Florida's population
18 million
high growth and reproductive, low parental care, generalist
causes of coral reef degradation
bleaching, UV exposure, pollutants, loss of mangroves, cyanide, dynamite, oil spills, physical damage
0-30 degrees N/S
population doubling time
70/annual growth rate
Carbon cycle
component in organic molecules, provides metabolic energy
regional ecosystems: climate, soil, biodiversity
warm tropical climates, protect coastlines, nursery, specialist
balanced capacity, low reproduction, high parental, specialist
human impacts on wetlands
53 percent destroyed, drain wetlands and connecting waterways, fertilizer runoff
Responsible for the theory of evolution
Darwin and Wallace
10 percent rule
energy is lost in transition - energy/biomass
Hydrologic disruption
pollution, altering/creating bodies of water
Father of Biogeography
moral and aesthetic/biocentric
preservation school
neo malthus
approaching capacity, distribution of weath and resources
environmental science
must meet tests of science
levels of symbiosis
mutualism, commensalism, parasitism
selective pressures
environmental factors, competiton, predation, symbiosis
Tallahassee's Biome
Temperate conifer
study of poisons and effects, tests on lab animals, computer stimulation
neo marx
eliminate poverty through social justice
fixed limits, population grows exponentially while food is plentiful
organisms absorb toxic substance at a rate greater than that is lost
reasons why environmental concerns are becoming a greater threat to society
overpopulation, modern technology, consumption
population growth equation
(crude birth - death) + (immigration - emigration)
causes of speciation
isolation and selective pressures
Nitrogen cycle
key plant nutrient that forms amino acids and proteins
capacity to do work
open system
materials, energy, info exchanged between external sources
positive feedback
moves in same direction, destabilizes, Ex. erosion, affluenza
factors that increse desire for children
Habitat loss, Invasive species, Pollution, Population, Overharvesting
conservation school
1st law of thermodynamics
conservation of energy
30-50 degrees N/S
Rachel Carson
Silent Spring, modern environmentalism
Wisconsin Biome
Temperate Decidious
social justice slows growth. causes: explotation and oppression
Impact =
Population * Affluence * Technology
Main couses for extinctions
human induced, catastrophic events, biological requirements not met
negative feedback
movies in opposite direction, stabilizes, Ex. global temp
geochemical cycles
hydrologic, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur
Categories of Endangered Species Act of 1973
endangered (eminent), threatened, vulnerable (naturally rare)

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