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PSU: Psychology Classnotes 5

Final review flashcards for Psych 100 (Penn State)


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Superchiasmatic Nucleus (SCN)
A cluster of neurons in the hypothalamus; Governs the timing of circadian rhythm including sleep-wake and mental alertness
Visual Images (Dreams)
Occipital lobe is activated without optical nerve; other portions of the brain are mostly inactive; most people report dreams play out like a movie
Middle Level of Consciousness
Auto processing / Daydreaming; Engaged in routine / familiar tasks: experienced drivers and "driver's amnesia"
Chronic inability to fall asleep or remain asleep for an adequate length of time, includes restless leg syndrome (legs don't want to stop moving); treatments: stimulus control (if you can't sleep w/in 15 mins go do something until you feel sleepy: bed only allowed for sleep), relaxation response
Stage 4 NREM
Delta waves present greater than or equal to 50% of the time; most difficult to wake someone; muscular movement possible; bed wetting and sleep walking occur here (disorders); heart rate, blood pressure, and breathing are at their lowest
Gender Dreams
Men have more physical aggression: more punching, breaking, stealing, etc; Women experience aggression in form of rejection ('that dress makes you look fat'), weddings and babies have something that go wrong
Child Dreams
95% of children have fear of monsters with cat-like features (claws, fangs), starting as young as age 2; Location of monsters: Boys (behind door, curtains, to side), Girls (under the bed)
Stage 3 NREM
>14 hz, it is the transition stage to deep delta wave (stage 4) sleep; mixture of delta and theta waves
Immediate thoughts, feelings, and emotions inlcuding awareness of 'self' and surroundings, both physical and social; Meta-cognition: being aware of having thoughts and development of them; William James: "Stream of Consciousness," sometimes low and slow moving, other times high and fast
Hormone secreted by the pea-sized pineal gland in the center of the brain, it synchronizes the sleep-wakefulness cycle; As sun decreases, SCN increases melatonin production (makes sleepy and reduces activity level)
Disorder where you fall asleep at random times during the day (work or school); main treatment is with drugs that stimulate the CNS
Alpha Waves
4-8 hz; normal state of consciousness, relaxed but awake; transition stage to sleep
High Level of Consciousness
Controlled processes that are sharp and focused (learning new task, studying, first learning to drive, having conversation with friend); Can interfere with other functions (passage of time), evidence: cocktail party effect (selective attention can be redirected)
REM Rebound
When you miss out on REM one night, you make up for it the next night
Memory and Dreams
LTM: active (people and events from past: common); STM: inactive (dreams forget what happens and accepts rapidly shifting scenes); Dream content: chased/pursued but not injured (78% of men, 83% of women), sexual experiences (85% of men, 73% of women)
Stage 1 NREM
8-12 hz, pre-sleep, only lasts a few minutes; composed of alpha and theta waves (theta: 7-8hz, daydreaming), 10.5hz = perfect meditation; you gradually disengage from sensations around you; includes hypnagogic hallucinations (floating, falling); myoclonic jerks: sleep start
Abnormal emotions, behaviors, movements that occur during sleep (night terrors and sleepwalking)
Stage 2 NREM
12-14 hz, quiet sleep, progressively more relaxed and less responsive; lasts about 15-20 minutes; K complexes (voltage wave boosts that occur due to external stimulation (sounds) but also occur randomly); sleep spindles (short bursts of brain activity); sleep talking is common here; breathing is deep and rhythmical
Selective Attention
Sharp and focused concentration/consciousness; control of consciousness that is deliberate; 2 requirements (sensory adaptation (stimuli that are benign/constant) and motivation)
Beta Waves
4-7 hz; show high levels of consciousness
Logic and Emotions (Dreams)
Limbic center is active (emotional center of brain); depressed dreamers have more limbic activity (trouble sleeping); prefrontal cortex: inactive (no logic, organization, rationale, judgement)
Environmental Cues
Helps keep 24 hr. cycle synchronized (especially sunlight); communicated in the eye and shin receptors; sunlight 'enters' the SCN to keep cycle; if environmental cues are removed, most people go to 25 hr days (ex: jet lag, night shifts)
Sleep Apnea
Sleep disorder where pauses in breathing occur during sleep; treatment: CPAP device (splits airway open to allow for easier air movement), and a mouthpiece can be used as well
Dream Recall
Typically we remember 1/10 dreams, you can remember dreams much better if you are determined to do so and think about it, and lots of distractions in the morning make us forget
Minimal Level of Consciousness
(No consciousness) Unconscious (Freud): a theoretical structure of the mind; Unconscious (bio-based): Sleeping, passed out, coma; Sleep and Dreams: Circadian (about day rhythm); Superchiasmatic Nucleus (SCN)
Stage 1 REM
"Dream sleep," Beta waves (80% of time here is spent dreaming); form of active sleep due to dreaming, but unable to move body; paradox = wide awake + 'sleeping' body; heightened brain activity and body activity; pulse can be fast and irregular; brain blocks message to motor center (muscles relaxed); can't act out dreams, sexual arousal common; memory circuits of brain are activated, major part of memory consolidation; REM is increased after learning (only higher mammals have REM, not reptiles); if missed some REM one night next night there will be more

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