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Social Psychology Chapters 11 to 13 and Modules A to C Definitions


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Need to belong
a motivation to bond with others in relationships that provide ongoing positive interactions
geographical nearness and it powerfully predicts liking
Mere exposure effect
the tendency for novel stimuli to be liked more or rated more positively after the rater has been repeatedly exposed to them
Matching phenomenon
the tendency for men and women to choose as partners those who are a good match in attractiveness and other traits
Physical attractiveness stereotype
the presumption that physically attractive people possess other socially desirable traits as well. i.e. What is beautiful is good.
the popularly supposed tendency in a relationship between two people for each to complete what is missing in the other
the use of strategies such as flattery by which people seek to gain anotherÂ’s favor
Reward theory of attraction
the theory that we like those whose behavior is rewarding to us or whom we associate with rewarding events
Passionate love
a state of intense longing for union with another, they are absorbed in one another feel ecstatic at attaining their partnerÂ’s love and are disconsolate on losing it
Two factor theory of emotion
arousal X label = emotion
Companionate love
the affection we feel for those with whom our lives are deeply intertwined
a condition in which the outcomes people receive from a relationship are proportional to what they contribute to it
Self disclosure
revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others
Disclosure reciprocity
the tendency for one personÂ’s intimacy of self disclosure to match that of a conversational partner
a motive to increase anotherÂ’s welfare without conscious regard for oneÂ’s self interests
Social exchange theory
the theory that human interactions are transactions that aim to maximize oneÂ’s rewards and minimize oneÂ’s costs
a motive supposedly underlying all behavior to increase oneÂ’s own welfare. The opposite of altruism which aims to increase anotherÂ’s welfare.
the vicarious experience of anotherÂ’s feeling, putting oneself in anotherÂ’s shoes
Reciprocity norm
an expectation that people will help, not hurt, those who have helped them
Social responsibility norm
an expectation that people will help those dependent upon them
Kin selection
the idea that evolution has selected altruism toward oneÂ’s close relatives to enhance the survival of mutually shared genes
Bystander effect
the finding that a person is less likely to provide help when there are other bystanders
Door in the face technique
a strategy for gaining a concession. After someone first turns down a large request the same requester counteroffers with a more reasonable request
Moral exclusion
the perception of certain individuals or groups as outside the boundary within which one applies moral values and rules of fairness
Moral inclusion
regarding others as within oneÂ’s circle of moral concern
Overjustification effect
the result of bribing people to do what they already like doing, they may then see their action as externally controlled rather than intrinsically appealing
a perceived incompatibility of actions or goals
Non zero sum games
games in which outcomes need not sum to zero. With cooperation, both can win. With competition, both can lose
Mirror image perceptions
reciprocal views of one another often held by parties in conflict. i.e. each may view itself as moral and peace loving and the others as evil and aggressive
Equal status contact
contact on an equal basis
Superordinate goal
s shared goal that necessitates cooperative effort, a goal that overrides peopleÂ’s differences from one another
seeking an agreement through direct negotiation between parties to a conflict
an attempt by a neutral third party to resolve a conflict by facilitating communication and offering suggestions
resolution of a conflict by a neutral third party who studies both sides and imposes a settlement
Integrative agreements
win win agreements that reconcile both partiesÂ’ interests to their mutual benefit
Acronym for graduated and reciprocated initiatives in tension reduction
GRIT, Strategy designed to deescalate international tensions
Clinical psychology
the study, assessment, and treatment of people with psychological difficulties
Depressive realism
the tendency of mildly depressed people to make accurate rather than self serving judgments, attributions, and predictions
Explanatory style
oneÂ’s habitual way of explaining life events. A negative, pessimistic, depressive explanatory style attributes failures to stable, global, and internal causes
Behavior medicine
an interdisciplinary field that integrates and applies behavioral and medical knowledge about health and disease
Health psychology
a subfield of psychology that provides psychologyÂ’s contribution to behavioral medicine
Misinformation effect
witnessing an event, receiving misleading information about it, and then incorporating the stuff into oneÂ’s memory of the event
the desire to assert oneÂ’s sense of freedom
Adaptation level phenomenon
the tendency to adapt to a given level of stimulation and thus to notice and react to changes from that level
Type A personalities
personality type that is driven and subject to love attacks, Extremely competitive, Tension, constant pressure, Impatient, restless, hyper alert, Sounds like a male description
Aggression are inborn and instinctive
Views enemy as less human to relive guilt over killing them
Feshbach and dolls study, Learned situational causes to aggression
One group of kids was told that it was staged and they played quietly and another group of kids were told that it was an actual news brief which caused them to have heightened aggression
anonymous and deindividuation
Masked students give more shocks because they are ???. Aggression can only be lowered by taking away ???.
David Buss
evolution psychologist, experiment found that male subjects who viewed video saw sexual cues more than women
wife killing
Wilson and Daly
evolutionary psychologists that researched violence in mate retention, notion of sexual proprietary suggests that a wife is considered property, resentment of infidelity or wanting to leave will induce this
this gender worries about mate having other emotional relationships
this gender worries about mateÂ’s sexual relationships
ThereÂ’s a negative correlations between wife killing and the age of a woman. The older they are the less likely they will be killed. The older she gets the less valuable resources she has to offer. Men should show this toward younger women, because sheÂ
What kind of correlation is there between uxoricide and age of a woman? Why?
Darley and Latane
did a study over Prosocial/altruistic behavior, studied the Kitty Genovese case, they found that the more people around the less likely you will receive help. They also did a smoke study where a lot of people in the room did not report smoke
1) Notice the situation 2) If yes then, do you label it as an emergency? 3) If yes then, do you assume responsibility?
What is the series of decisions that must be made before a bystander actually helps?
Diffusion of responsibility
What is the phenomenon that occurs when many people are around and causes them to not help as often?
Latane and Rodin
Who did a study about people working on puzzles and had a woman fake a fall in another room and found that the more people present the less they responded and when they did it took them more time to respond
Headphone study where somebody fakes a seizure
Study that showed even when a person thinks there are more people around they are less likely to help and when they do the take longer
Social comparison process theory by Leon Festinger
Name and creator of the theory that says human beings have an innate drive to evaluate their abilities and the correctness of your opinions, similar other hypothesis says we try to evaluate ourselves to people similar to ourselves.
Ambiguity of situation
What is one of the main reasons that people do not help, it occurs when thereÂ’s nothing objective to tell you an answer to help or not those situations are hard to decide.
Bryan and Test
Who conducted the study about the automobile breakdown on the highway found that when drivers saw a model helping a car before they are more likely to help in the next automobile situation.
Men, men probably know more about a situation and are more courageous (shown by experiments that took knowledge and courage factors out and found that both sexes helped as often as the next)
Helping rates found what gender to be more helpful? Why? The helping rate says that males are more helpful.
He devised a study that dealt with beef and liver. So, he called house wives and told them that eating gizzard and liver was good for you. They found that the housewife (the one more similar to them) had the larger influence than the professional confederate
T. Brook
He is considered the father of social psychology and he did a study at a paint store in which one man tried to get people to change their choice of paint to another brand and found that more people changed when the person acted as a similar person.
Study done by Hendrix that dealt with charity and similarity test, Hypothesis was that the standard normal looking confederate ought to increase the contribution rate, because he was similar to people in the store
Controlled condition of the study=people could come by and donate. Another condition showed a biology faculty member would make a contribution (standard normal looking confederate). Another condition had freaky looking confederate made a contribution in front of potential contributors. Problems of the study=Ralph did not adequately describe what he was doing to the store manager. Results of study=they found that the straight model did not raise anymore contributions than normal. They also found that the freak model INHIBITED contributions
1: Intrinsic 2: marked by very close association, contact, or familiarity 3: marked by warm friendship
Eros=self disclosing passion, long term, Storge=friendship long term, Ludus=uncommitted game playing, one night stands
What are the three love “styles” that can help measure love?
Two Factor Theory of emotion by Schachter and Singer
What is the theoryÂ’s name and the creator of the theory that argues when the revved up man responds to a woman, he easily misattributed some of the emotion to his arousal to her.
Attachment styles research conducted by Shaver
Research done where children were brought with their mothers to a lab play room where they we allowed to explore and play with toys.
Type of attachment when infants play in comfort with mothers present but get distressed if the mother leaves them. When the mother returns they cling to her then return to explore the unknown area. Later in life as adults these types find it easy to get close to others and do not worry about getting too dependent or being abandoned. Their relationships are satisfying and enduring.
type of attachment where infants show little distress when left alone in the room and the do not cling to their mothers when they return. As Adults they are less invested in relationships and are more likely to leave their significant other. These are the types of people that are more likely to be involved in a one night stand and sec with out love.
type of attachment where infants are anxious and uncertain. When the mother is there they cling and when she leaves they cry but on return the become indifferent of hostile. As adults these types are less trusting and more possessive and jealous. They may break up with the same person several times and get very emotional and angry during conflicts.
Equity principle of attraction
Short term relationship exchanging benefits=You do this and I will do that, Enduring Relationships=They stop keeping track of who owes what.
The internet is the ultimate networker. Allowing us to have relationship with people we would never have gotten the chance to know. It allows us to strengthen real relations by increasing contact. Allows people to work from home and have more time for their family. Appearance, age and race are erased to allow people to see what is important, your values and interest. However, the internet lacks eye to eye contact and is does not show the nonverbal cues. It is devoid of facial expression and gestures. It makes for ambiguous emotion. Also diverts time from real relationships, with the internet the cyber world is artificial intimacy. Distort peoples view of reality and decreases the attractiveness of real world situations.
Hypothesis: Children who are accepted by their parents will grow up to have normal, intimate relationships, whereas children who are rejected by their parents will have less intimacy in their personal relationships when they are older. Problems: Given to
In the Intimacy in the Family and Society Presentation what was their hypothesis, problems, methods, and results?
Alcoholism and Its Effects on the Family
Common Symptoms of Children of alcoholics: Low self esteem, Loneliness, Guilt for not being able to stop parents from drinking, Feelings of helplessness, Fears of abandonment,Chronic depression
Most behaviors are learned responses to circumstances and situations that are exhibited in the home. 1) If a child grows up in a home where one parent is either physically or verbally abused 2) Parenting practices of severe discipline 3) When both parent
What are the four main conditions that occur in the home that contribute to school violence?
Teaching children not to trust strangers, Females who were taught not to trust strangers consistently experiences greater fear of intimacy and more loneliness
By doing teach this it can erode the foundation for good future interpersonal relationships.
Locus of control
whether we perceive we are under control or not
internal locus of control
we are under control and master of our fate
External locus of control
we have no control
J.B. Rotter
made the scale for locus of control
Rural people
who showed more prosocial behavior between urban and rural people?
Sheidon Cohen
He wanted to see if situations of noise affect academics (environmental study). He matched flight paths with schools and schools with no flights overhead. He found that there was a difference both academically and physiological. Furthermore, he found that kids did not get used to the sounds. Their scores got worse over time and they showed a tendency to give up easier. People at quiet school had more patience.
As studentsÂ’ abilities to control decreases, they will make more errors, they would evaluate materials more negatively, and they would evaluate the author of the materials more negatively
Hendrix StudyÂ’s Hypothesis, Correct answers=Dorm Noise lowest, Statistical test=not significantly different, When asked how informative the chapter? Lowest was the dorm noise group, Statistical test=not significantly different from each other, How much did they like the chapter?=Rock and roll scored pretty high, F test tells you if variance is same in these conditions. Then you can do a plan comparison test to see where difference is coming from., Chance to meet author=Dorm Noise=very negative, 3/5 significant findings and supported hypothesis, 1 independent variable=the study environment

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