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UK Driving Test Practical Tips

practical driving tips to help you with your lessons and the reasons you may have difficulties in some areas. Review these, apply the solutions and help yourself to pass your practical driving test first time. These may be some of the best practical driving test tips you will find. http://www.driving-schools-directory.co.uk/practical-driving-test-tips.asp?

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Begin the MSM sequence earlier, say, 2 seconds, to give you time to fit in all the checks
You're not using your door mirrors (enough). Because you felt you didn't have time
Take twice as long to look in the mirrors and act sensibly on what you see: how close is following traffic? Is it likely to overtake, and so on
You didn't act on what you saw in your mirrors. Because you glanced at them too quickly
Turn later, say, half a bonnet length, when the front of the car is level with the middle of the road you're turning into
Turning right, you cut the corner. Because you turned too early
Use the top of the gear lever only
You're not using the gear lever correctly. Because you're using the shaft of the lever
Complete the turn and have the back of your car completely in the new road by the time any traffic drives by on the major road
You crossed approaching traffic unsafely. Because you misjudged its speed and distance
Match the speed to suit the conditions (advise on dangers). Never accelerate into hazards
You're driving too fast, generally. Because you're unaware of the hazards and dangers
Use the handbrake only if you're going to be waiting for more than a moment, or due to the gradient. Select neutral if the wait is going to be longer than, say, 20 seconds.
You were hesitant emerging. Because you applied the handbrake selected neutral unnecessarily
Look clearly between the headrests - this will give you the best view to the rear
When reversing, you weren't looking properly / taking effective observation. Because you were looking through / over the head-rest
Make eye contact with pedestrians but don't wave or signal them to cross. You could be waving them into danger. Let them make their own decision as to when to cross
You stopped and waved / flashed / signalled pedestrians to cross. Because you thought it was helpful
Start reducing your speed earlier, say, 2 - 3 car lengths, so that you can fit in all elements of the system
You coasted on approach and while emerging. Because you approached too - quickly and didn't give yourself enough time to go through the MSPSL sequence
Carry on in your lane if you discover you're in the wrong one. Find another way back to your route
You changed lanes late / suddenly . Because you didn't read the road ahead and plan
Look as far ahead as the road layout allows, and scan back from side to side
The car was weaving along the road. Because you were looking at the kerb / oncoming traffic / other diversion
Turn earlier, when the back of the car is level with the end of the vehicle you're reversing behind
You went too far back before turning. Because you steered too late
Always look mainly through the middle of the rear window
You veered away from the kerb. Because you weren't looking through the middle of the rear window
Use a smooth pulling movement in the direction of the bend
You steered erratically round the bend. Because you were snatching / grabbing at the wheel
Use the door mirrors as part of your overall observation strategy, for no more than a count of, say, 1 - 2 seconds
When reversing, you weren't looking properly / taking effective observation. Because you were staring in the door / interior mirrors
Turn back the same amount you steered initially, in order to straighten up
In the new road, you over steered and veered towards the kerb. Because you over corrected the steering
Steer no more than 5 or 10 minutes in either direction, when reversing in a straight line
You veered in and out. Because you were steering too far one way and then too far the other way
Keep about 1mtr from the kerb / verge, where road and traffic conditions allow.
You're driving too wide. Because you weren't aware of the safe and correct distance to keep
Adjust the mirror from your normal seating position
properly . Because you're leaning forward in your seat
Take longer, say twice as long, and consider how you could act to help others: brake earlier, signal earlier, and so on
You didn't use your mirrors effectively. Because you glanced at them too quickly
Signal each time before you turn from one road into another
You didn't signal on approach. Because you didn't see the need to
Turn the key 3 'clicks' (adjust: for your car) away from you
The engine hasn't started. Because you didn't turn the key far enough, you only turned it two 'clicks'
Use a smooth progressive action
You came to a very sharp stop. Because you jabbed at the pedal
Adjust the headrest so the point of contact is with the rearmost part of your skull, which is usually level with the top of your ears. Adjust it by...(describe for your vehicle)
You've positioned your headrest too low / high . Perhaps you're unsure how to position / adjust it
Signal When you intend to turn from one road to another. In other situations give signals if it would help or warn others
You didn't signal. Because you were unaware of its necessity
Reduce the speed with the brakes first and then select the gear
The car lurched / jolted when you changed gear. Because you selected the lower gear at too high a speed -
General: If the pupil has been driving a car with / without power steering, and yours doesn't /does, this could affect their control
As you emerged you veered towards the wrong side of the road turning left. Because you drove forward too far before steering / didn't follow the curve of the kerb
Keep about a door's width away (show pupils your hands apart to illustrate the correct distance if they're at all unsure) If you have to go closer, go slower
You are / were driving too close to the parked vehicles) / obstruction. Because you didn't-know correct distance to keep
Fit in with other drivers and their expectations. Going too slowly causes others to become frustrated and annoyed; they might then take risks.
You're driving too slowly!. Because you thought it was safer
Maybe you're unsure about how to do that Position the mirror(s) (explain how) so that you get a good view to the rear and side of the vehicle, not pointing up to the sky or down to the ground
You didn't adjust the exterior mirror(s) correctly
Regulate your speed by a reduction of; say, 5mph
You rushed up to the junction. Because you didn't know what was a safe and controlled speed.
Turn once you have crossed the give way / kerb line, not before
You emerged onto the wrong side of the road turning right. Because you turned too soon
Check all the mirrors before moving off
You hadn't make the necessary checks. Because you didn't check any / all of the mirrors
Know the speed limit you're in at all times (advise pupil on how to tell)
You're exceeding the speed limit. Because you weren't aware of the limit
Use small movements, say, the thickness of a pound coin either side of the biting point, easing or squeezing, to precisely control the speed of the car
You went across to the other side of the road. Because you didn't use 'tight' clutch control
Use your hand on the door pull like this (demonstrate to pupil and explain why this is a better way of checking)
You didn't check the door properly. Because you banged it with your fist / palm or used your elbow
Adjust the mirrors once your seat is positioned correctly
You haven't adjusted the mirrors at all. Because you did the safety routine out of sequence
Use the gear lever only with your left hand
You're not using the gear lever correctly. Because you're using the wrong hand
Act sensibly on what you see / hear before moving away
You moved away unsafely. Because although you looked you didn't take effective observation
Dip the clutch and cover / use the brake as necessary
You hit the kerb, going forward. Because you went too fast
Only turn the wheel when the car is moving
You're using the steering wheel incorrectly. Because you're turning it while the car is stationary
Start steering briskly, using large bites of the wheel, as soon as the car starts moving
You took more turns than were necessary. Because you didn't steer (briskly) enough / use large enough bites of the wheel
Start looking earlier, say, 6 - 7 car lengths, so that you are ready to emerge as soon as you can see it's clear
You were hesitant emerging. Because you didn't look until you got to the crossroads
Keep a gear engaged all the time the car is moving
You coasted on approach and while emerging. Because you put the gear lever into neutral
Start slowing down later, say, and 3 - 4 car lengths. This will help the traffic flow
You're driving too slowly!. Because you slowed down unnecessarily early
Touch hands at 12 and 6, as on a clock face, to ensure that you've covered the complete circumference of the steering wheel
You haven't checked the steering wheel properly. Because you didn't run your hands all the way from 12 to 6 (as on a clock face) and back again
Look at the road for signs or lines which prohibit you from overtaking (advise)
planned to overtake unsafely . Because you didn't see the prohibitory signs / lines
Look at the road ahead and consider how the gradient or other feature(s)) could affect your speed and make the necessary adjustments: increasing the gas; selecting a more appropriate gear and so on before the car starts to lose too much speed
You're driving too slowly!. Because you weren't aware that the road was sloping uphill
Use the information sensibly and consider the effect of your manoeuvre on others
Although you used the mirrors, you didn't act on what was seen . Because you didn't know how to react
Adjust your position to take parked vehicles / obstructions into account. Such objects narrow the width of road and you should then imagine where the 'new' centre line is
You were incorrectly positioned before turning right. Because you didn't take parked: vehicles into account
Use enough force that if the door was open it would rattle
You didn't check the door properly. Because you didn't use sufficient force
Look at the road and decide whether its level, uphill or downhill and then use the appropriate technique
You reversed too slowly. Because you didn't assess the start correctly
Keep the clutch pedal at or about the biting point and move it up or down no more than the thickness of a one-pound coin, as a general guideline
Your control was erratic - stop / start progress. Because you allowed the clutch pedal to move too far up and down
Listen to the engine noise to help you identify which gear you are currently in
The car laboured / shuddered when you changed gear. Because you forgot which gear you were in and went from 2nd to 2nd
Put your clutch down just before you change gear /about a car length from the junction. Coasting will give you less control of the car and can cause you to approach the junction at a higher speed than you intended
You coasted on approach. Because you put the clutch down, unnecessarily
Release the handbrake before the car moves
You stalled. Because you didn't release the handbrake
Use only those arm signals shown in the Highway Code. Advise the pupil about the correct arm signals, and get them w demonstrate, whilst stationary
You signalled incorrectly by arm. Because you used the wrong arm movement
Look and go, if it's safe. If you wait unnecessarily it is likely that something will appear
You were hesitant emerging. Because you were looking for too long, almost wanting something to appear
Bring the clutch up slowly and smoothly, say, in the time it takes you to say 'clutch up slowly' and then keep the clutch at, or about, the biting point
You reversed too quickly. Because the clutch came up too quickly / too far
Set the gas more, another pound coin, say, to compensate for PAS and AC
You stalled. Because you didn't realise that the power steering and / or air conditioning take power
Use the footbrake to reduce the speed of the car
You rushed up to the junction. Because you slowed the car down with gears
Listen to the engine note and think about the speed ranges in the gears
The car lurched when you changed gear. Because you selected the new, higher gear too early
Adjust your position to take parked vehicles / obstructions on the other side of the road into account. Such objects narrow the width of road and you should then imagine where the 'new' centre line is
You were incorrectly positioned before turning right. Because you didn't take parked vehicles into account
Look ahead, check in mirrors and act on the information before deciding whether to signal
You didn't signal when it was necessary. Because you didn't check effectively before deciding
Release the handbrake when the car is at the biting point
You stalled (uphill start). Because you brought the clutch up too far, with the handbrake on
Use only the right foot on the brake
You're using the brake pedal incorrectly. Because you're using the wrong foot
Use cadence braking - release and reapply the brakes - as soar as the wheels lock (demonstrate cadence braking and advise on how to tell if the car is skidding
You skidded, sliding in a straight line, but did not correct it. Because you didn't realise the wheels had locked and you were skidding
Take off the same amount of steering as you put in when turning the corner
In the new road, you were driving too wide. Because you overcorrected the steering
Take half as long to look. If it's safe, then go. If you look for long enough something will come along
You were hesitant moving away (emerging at a junction). Because you took too long looking
Look at the road surface and adjust your braking to suit
You skidded. Because you didn't assess the road surface
Take early effective observation; start looking, right / left / ahead / right about 6 - 7 car lengths from the crossroads
You didn't look as you approached the crossroads. Because you stared straight ahead
Put in the correct number, which is...
The engine hasn't started. Because you didn't put in the (correct) number for the immobiliser
Position the car centrally in the lane. Look where you want to go
You were positioned too far to the left in the lane. Because you were staring at the left-side lane line
Leave a gap of about half a car length you can do this by using the 'tyres and tarmac' guide. From your stopped position you should be able to see the rear tyres and some tarmac between your car and the one in front
You've stopped too close to the car in front. Because you didn't know / forgot what the gap should be
Turn earlier, when the back wheels are level with the point where the road begins to turn
You (almost) hit the kerb. Because you steered too early
Pause or stop, making eye contact with the other driver(s)
When reversing, you weren't looking properly, taking effective observation. Because although you saw the approaching traffic you carried on
Set more gas, say, the thickness of three pound coins
The car 'kangaroo jumped'. Because you didn't set enough gas for the gradient
Use the mirrors every 5 seconds, as a general guideline. Say to yourself '1 -2-3-4-5 mirrors check'. As soon as you see a hazard, check the mirrors
You're not checking your mirrors often enough I before signalling / changing speed I direction. Because you're not concentrating
Act sensibly on the information you receive
At the point of turn you didn't check / take effective observation. Because although you looked, you didn't act on what you saw / heard
Use the correct hand position on the gear lever to select the gear
You stalled. Because you selected 3rd instead of 1st / 4th instead of reverse
Drive slowly, say, walking pace and turn the wheel briskly.
You shunted backwards and forwards unnecessarily. Because you didn't control the car sufficiently precisely
Start to steer once the car has crossed the give way / kerb line
You emerged on the wrong side of the road. Because you turned too early
Drive at a low speed, walking pace or less. Don't be hesitant. Be positive-but not pushy.
You confused waiting pedestrians. Because you were uncertain how to deal with them
Look as far ahead as you can see-the limit point (explain) and scan your view back from side to side
You're driving too wide. Because you're staring at the white line
Match your speed to suit the situation - less space / vision, less speed
You rushed into that meet situation. Because you didn't match your speed to that of the conditions
Use the left hand lane except when you're overtaking
You're travelling in the wrong lane (Mway or DC). Because you thought it was acceptable to drive in the middle lane
Look through the middle of the rear window when you're going backwards
When reversing, you weren't looking properly / taking effective observation. Because you were looking through the rear side window / ahead
Look mainly at the hazard but keep checking all around for others
When reversing, you weren't looking properly, taking effective observation. Because you stared at the hazard
Steer away from the kerb the same amount you've steered in, say, a quarter turn of the wheel
You've stopped at an angle / not parallel to the kerb (front of car protruding). Because you over steered - that is, you steered out / away from the kerb more than you'd steered in
Set the gas about the thickness of 2 one-pound coins
You took more turns than were necessary. Because you set too much gas
Keep the button pressed in until the handbrake is fully applied. Keep your hand on the handbrake and use the same grip on it all the way down
You're not using the handbrake properly (releasing). Because you're throwing it down, letting go of it
Use the interior mirror first, then the appropriate door mirror, left for left, right for right
You checked the wrong door mirror. Because you didn't know the correct sequence
Position your right heel on the floor midway between the gas and brake and pivot your foot to rest squarely on the gas pedal (consider footwear)
You're using the gas pedal incorrectly. Because you're pressing two pedals at once
Look further down the road, say, 20 - 30m, and use other reference points to monitor your position: door mirrors / checking forward
You veered towards the kerb. Because you were staring at the kerb and got drawn towards it...
Use three reference points to help you position properly:1. To the rear - look mainly through the middle of the rear window. 2. To the front - quick glances forward. 3. To the sides - quick glances in the door mirrors
You didn't park centrally within the marked lines / parked at an angle. Because you looked mainly in the mirrors
Listen for the clicking noise and be aware of the indicator light within your peripheral vision. Consider situations when this would happen (advise). If it cancels itself, re-apply immediately
Your signal cancelled and you didn't re-apply it. Because you weren't aware that it had cancelled
Use a smooth, firm action, taking twice as long
You're not using the handbrake properly (applying). Because you pulled it up too quickly
Approach at such a speed that you give yourself time to check ahead and into the new road clearly and effectively, before turning
Turning right, you cut the corner. Because you took a chance and rushed across
Turn sideways in your seat so that you can look squarely through the back window
When reversing, you weren't looking properly, taking effective observation. Because you hadn't turned in your seat
Use progressive braking; start off braking lightly and then increase the pressure before finally easing off and changing gear or stopping
You crawled up to the crossroads. Because you braked too harshly
Approach at a safe and controlled speed, such that you could stop safely, if necessary. Rushing up could alarm and confuse others, especially pedestrians
You rushed up to the junction. Because you didn't realise what the consequences would be
Use the seat height adjuster...(describe for your vehicle)
The steering wheel is catching on your legs . Because you haven't adjusted the height of the seat
Regulate your speed, reduce it by, say, 5 - 8mph, so that you can stop safely if necessary
You didn't give way to pedestrians crossing the mouth of the junction. Because you approached too quickly
Look, and listen, actively for pedestrians, especially the more vulnerable ones
You didn't give way to pedestrians crossing the mouth of the junction. Because you didn't see them
You probably didn't realise why it's important to use the appropriate anchor point Check that you're putting your seat-belt into your anchor point
You've plugged your seat-belt into the anchor point on my side
Start to steer as the car begins to move, or at the latest when you can no longer see the tarmac of the 'tyres and tarmac' guideline. Then you are, generally, within 1m of the car in front
You got too close to the stationary car. Because you were unable to judge the distance
Turn the wheel only when the car is moving
You dry-steered. Because you turned the wheel before the car moved
Regulate your speed, reduce it by, say, 5 - 8mph, so that you can stop safely if necessary
You didn't give way to pedestrians crossing the mouth of the crossroads. Because you approached too quickly
Look actively for hazards - think about what is happening / likely to happen, within a 30m radius of the car
When reversing, you weren't looking properly, taking effective observation. Because you were unaware of a moving hazard (specify)
Check your mirrors as soon as you're straight in the new road and before you accelerate
You didn't use your mirrors when in the new road. Because you're probably unaware-of /forgot the need to do it
Plan early and look at the road for signs (arrows) indicating the appropriate lane for your destination / direction
You selected the wrong lane on approach (to traffic lights roundabouts and so on). Because you weren't taking early effective observation
Keep your full attention on driving tasks - go through the routines in your mind MSM... and so on, or say them out loud, to help you focus.
You're not checking your mirrors often enough. Because you're mentally preoccupied / not concentrating
Make eye contact with pedestrians waiting to cross -this lets them know you have seen them - but don't signal them to cross. Let them make their own decisions
You waved the pedestrian(s) across. Because you thought it was helpful
Never wave pedestrians across. You could be putting them in danger. Other drivers / riders would not be aware of your actions and could crash into the pedestrian(s)
You waved the pedestrian(s) across. Because you didn't know the dangers of doing so
Visit an optician and discuss symptoms
You are / were driving too close to the parked vehicles) / obstruction. Because your eyesight has deteriorated (through age / hormonal changes, pregnancy and so on)
Adjust your speed on approach so that you can stop safely within-the distance you can see to be clear. Moving towards the crown of the road will put you too close to oncoming traffic, which may also be too close, or so wide that they have no alternative
You were positioned too wide in the bend (left-hand bend). Because you thought it would improve your view
Plan ahead, look at the distance to the crossroads; and regulate your speed so that your slowing down is progressive and smooth. Fluctuating speed can alarm and confuse others
Your speed fluctuated on approach. Because you misjudged your speed, slowed down too much, then speeded up
Open the windows before starting this manoeuvre and actively listen for hazards
When reversing, you weren't looking properly / taking effective observation. Because you didn't open the windows
Keep to the centre of your lane on approach to a left-hand bend
You were positioned too wide in the bend (left-hand bend). Because you weren't aware of the correct position
Look, through the middle of the rear window over your left shoulder, when reversing in a straight line
When reversing, you weren't looking properly / taking effective observation. Because you were looking over the wrong shoulder
Hold back and assess the situation. What about if the other driver also rushed into it hoping to beat you?
You rushed into that meet situation. Because you wanted to beat the oncoming traffic
Look, and listen, actively for pedestrians, especially the more vulnerable ones
You didn't give way to pedestrians crossing the mouth of the crossroads. Because you didn't see them
Turn back the same amount you steered initially, in order to straighten up
In the new road, you over steered and veered towards the kerb. Because you over-corrected the steering
Be positive, though not pushy, make your plans early and follow them through. Talk yourself (either out loud or in your mind) through the situation using the MSM routine
You were hesitant in that meet situation. Because you were unsure what to do
Look ahead and glance at the kerb to position yourself correctly
You've stopped too far away from the kerb. Because you stared straight ahead
Check your mirrors and use the sequence as soon as you see the junction,
You didn't use the MSM sequence on approach to the junction. Because you weren't concentrating
Take off the same amount of steering as you put in to turn the corner
In the new road, you were driving too wide. Because you over corrected the steering
Adjust the seat so that you can operate the pedal comfortably and properly
You're using the brake pedal incorrectly. Because you're sitting too close
Touch hands at 12 and 6, as on a clock face, to ensure that you've covered the complete circumference of the steering wheel
You haven't checked the steering wheel properly. Because you didn't run your hands all the way from 12 to 6 (as on a clock face) and back again
Pivot your foot rapidly from the gas-to the-brake
You didn't react quickly enough. Because you took too long to move your right foot over to the brake pedal
Use the guideline: if you could walk across, you could drive across
You crossed approaching traffic unsafely. Because you misjudged its speed and distance
Plan for the worst and be able to stop should the worst case scenario arise
You were driving too fast for the conditions. Because you're not anticipating what might be around the bend
Turn sideways in your seat so that you can look squarely through the middle of the rear window
When reversing, you weren't looking properly / taking effective observation. Because you didn't turn sideways in your seat
Use the lever / wheel to adjust (describe for your vehicle). Use a cushion if necessary
The seat is too high / low for you. Maybe you didn't realise there was a height adjustment
Use your longest, usually middle, finger to operate the indicator.
You signalled incorrectly. Because you took your hand off the wheel to do so
Feed the wheel back through your hands using the pull push method - it's safer
You lost control of the car. Because you let the wheel spin back
Check the alignment of the door mirrors every time you get in the car and adjust as necessary
You haven't adjusted the mirrors at all. Because you didn't think they were important
Check the interior mirror first, as this will give you a life-size image of what's behind
You checked the door mirror first, rather than the interior mirror. Because you didn't realise in which order to check them
Apply less pressure, say, 10% less
You skidded. Because you braked too harshly
Read the road well ahead, as far as you can see, and then scan back from side to side. The earlier you can see the situation developing, the earlier you can start planning
You rushed into that meet situation. Because you didn't plan ahead
Regulate your speed by a reduction of, say, 5mph
You rushed up to the crossroads. Because you didn't know what was a safe and controlled speed
Look at it as you put it on and make sure it's flat
Your seat-belt is twisted. Because you didn't check as you put it on
Start to steer once the front of the car is level with the middle of the road you're turning into (if necessary, offer advice regarding obstructions affecting the point of turn)
You cut the corner. Because you turned too early
Use quick glances ahead and into the new road. If waiting, don't let the car 'creep' forward
You overshot the junction, turning right. Because you were staring ahead / edging forward
Check your mirrors, say, every 5 seconds, as a general guideline. This will give you a Clear picture of what the following traffic is doing / planning to do
You're not checking your mirrors often enough. Because you're not aware of the reasons for doing so
Hold the wheel lightly but firmly, as though you were holding eggs
You're gripping the wheel too tightly - your knuckles are" showing white. Perhaps you're unsure of the required amount of grip
Use (30%) more pressure, using the pedal progressively
You braked insufficiently. Because you didn't put enough pressure on the brake pedal
Take twice as long to look, say, 2 seconds
You hadn't make the necessary checks. Because you looked too quickly
Brake earlier, say, 3 car lengths earlier
You rushed up to the crossroads. Because you braked too late
Position your palm away from you when changing from 3rd to 2nd
You selected the wrong gear. Because you didn't have the correct hand position on the lever
Start the sequence earlier, say, 2 seconds earlier. This will give you time to fit everything in
You rushed up to the junction. Because you started the MSM routine too late
Give way to pedestrians crossing the road you are leaving and / or entering
You didn't give way to pedestrians crossing the mouth of the junction. Because you didn't know / forgot you had to
Keep to the centre of your lane. This is the best line and gives you the clearest view without compromising your safety
You were positioned too close to the verge / kerb (left-hand bend). Because you weren't aware of the correct position / stared at the kerb / verge
Perhaps you're unsure how to position / adjust it Use the lever / wheel...(describe as necessary) so that with both hands meeting at the top of the wheel your arms are slightly bent
The seat-back is angled too far back / forward
Use the guideline: if you could walk across, you could drive across
You crossed approaching traffic unsafely. Because you misjudged its speed and distance
Turn earlier, when the back wheels are level with the point where the road begins to turn
You went too wide around the corner. Because you steered too late
Use the seat height adjuster...(describe for your vehicle)
The steering wheel is catching on your legs. Because you haven't adjusted the height of the seat
Assess the corner, your speed, the gradient and the behaviour of following traffic and then decide when to start braking. The braking part of MSPSL is flexible (advise)
You braked too early / late. Because you were unsure about when to start braking
Put the clutch down just before the car comes to a stop, say, within a car length from the crossroads
You stalled, as you pulled up at the crossroads. Because you didn't put the clutch down / early / enough
Keep the button pressed in until the handbrake is fully applied
You're not using the handbrake properly (applying). Because you didn't keep the button pressed in
Start to straighten the car when you're (general guideline) 75% straight in the new road
In the new road, you (almost) went into the kerb. Because you didn't straighten up early enough
Use your thumb and forefinger on the corners of the mirror
You're obscuring the mirror with your hand as you adjust it. Perhaps you're unaware of the reasons it's best not to do that
Position the car just left of the centre of the road (advise)
You were incorrectly positioned before turning right. Because you didn't adjust your position on approach / were too far to the left / right
Feed the wheel back through your hands using the pull-push method - it's safer
You lost control of the car. Because you let the wheel spin back
Keep your mind on your driving at all times - give yourself a running commentary (either out loud or in your mind) to keep yourself alert
You're driving too slowly!. Because you weren't concentrating
Turn later, say, half a bonnet length, when the front of the car is level with the middle of the road you're turning into
Turning right, you cut the corner. Because you turned too early
Look at the traffic on the major road and ask yourself if you could emerge without causing drivers / riders on it to do any of the 4 S's: stop; slow down; swerve or swear
You were hesitant moving away (emerging at a junction). Because you were unsure how to judge when it was safe to emerge
Start the sequence earlier, say, 2 seconds, to give you time to get in the necessary door mirror checks
You didn't check your door mirrors. Because you felt you didn't have time
Wait until the orange glow plug light goes out, then turn me key (diesel only, when engine is cold)
The engine hasn't started. Because you didn't wait for the orange glow plug light to go out (diesel only, when engine is cold)
Use only eye movement to check the interior mirror. You will, naturally, need to move your head slightly to check your door mirrors
You're not making effective use of your mirrors. Because you're showboating, using exaggerated and theatrical head movements
Act sensibly on the information that you receive
You didn't look properly / take effective observation before moving off. Because, although you looked, you didn't act on what you saw / heard
Check your mirrors and use the sequence as soon as you see the crossroads
You didn't use the MSM sequence on approach to the junction. Because you weren't concentrating
Perhaps you're unaware of the reasons it's best not to do that Hold the buckle as you press the release button and feed the belt back to its resting place
You let the seat-belt fly back when you released it
Signal each time before you turn from one road into another
You didn't signal on approach. Because you didn't see the need to
Be looking through the middle of the back window when the car comes to a stop
When reversing, you weren't looking properly, taking effective observation. Because you looked forward before the car came to a stop
Start steering when the front of the car is level with the beginning of the turn
The left front / back wheel went over the kerb. Because you steered too early / too much
Get pupils to pull up in a quiet road alongside a stationary vehicle, which they think is 1m away. Then open your door. This will illustrate just how close they are. Then guide them into the correct position alongside another parked vehicle. Then open you
You are / were driving too close to the parked vehicles) / obstruction. Because you weren't able so judge the correct distance
Regulate your speed on approach to fit in with others' expectations. Excessive speed will alarm and frighten others, especially pedestrians
You rushed up to the junction. Because you were unaware of the hazards / risks
Use the handbrake only if you're going to be waiting for more than a moment, or due to the gradient. Select neutral if the wait is going to be longer than, say, 20 seconds.
You were hesitant emerging. Because you applied the handbrake / selected neutral unnecessarily
Keep the gas set - applying very slight pressure as the clutch is brought to the biting point (ease (the clutch up) and squeeze (the gas))
You stalled (level start). Because your foot came off the gas as the clutch came up
Glance up and down the road as you cross the middle of the road
You didn't check up and down the road. Because you were concentrating too much on the front of the car and the opposite kerb
Replace your hand on the steering wheel between each gear change. This will give you 100% control of the steering
You kept your hand on the gear lever between gear changes. Because you weren't aware that you were doing it
Look about 20 - 30m down the road and scan your vision back to the car
You veered in towards the kerb, in the new road. Because you didn't look far enough down the road
Hold back about 1 - 2 car lengths from the obstruction
You stopped too close to the parked vehicle / obstruction. Because you were unsure where to stop
Commentate on your driving -commentate to concentrate and anticipate
You're not checking your mirrors often enough
Steer more (advise the pupil). The narrower the gap the more you need to steer
You went too far back before turning. Because you didn't steer enough
Check forward, with quick glances, every half car length
When reversing, you weren't looking properly / taking effective observation. Because you didn't check forward (enough)
Reduce your speed (by 5mph) so that you could stop safely if necessary
You alarmed the pedestrians waiting to cross the road. Because you approached the corner too fast
Swivel your right foot to the left sufficiently so that it can press squarely on the brake pedal without interfering with other pedals (consider footwear)
You braked incorrectly. Because your foot caught the gas and brake pedal together
Assess the junction and regulate your speed to fit in with others. Take into account how busy the junction is
You crawled up to the junction. Because you didn't know when to start slowing down
Use the steering wheel adjuster...(describe for your vehicle)
Your hands are catching on your legs. Because you haven't adjusted the wheel height / tilt sufficiently
Look where you want to go. If you look at the parked cars you'll find yourself drawn towards them
You are / were driving too close to the parked vehicles) / obstruction . Because you were looking at the parked car(s) / obstruction
Use eye movement only, from your usual seating position
You haven't adjusted the mirror properly. Because you're craning your head forward, peering at the mirror
Take about half the time to pull it on
You're not using the handbrake properly (applying). Because you took too long to apply it
Reduce your speed and match it to suit the space available - less space, less speed. As a guideline 1m space - 30mph, 60cm - 20mph, 30cm - 10mph
You are / were driving too close to the parked vehicles) / obstruction. Because your speed was too high for the space available
Push the clutch all the way down to enable you to change from one gear to another
You couldn't get the gear lever into the chosen gear. Because you didn't push the clutch down far enough
Use the clutch every time when changing gear
You couldn't get the gear lever into the chosen gear. Because you didn't use the clutch
Straighten up as you're about two thirds of the way round the corner
As you emerged you almost went into the kerb turning left . Because you didn't straighten up early enough
Take into account the speed limit of the road you're emerging into
You emerged unsafely. Because you misjudged the speed and distance of traffic approaching from the right / left
Look at the geography of the road (advise the pupil) and use the appropriate technique
The car rolled backwards . Because you didn't assess the start - you thought it was level when in fact it's an uphill gradient
Keep well to the left but not the gutter. This would reduce the car's grip on the road because there is often loose gravel / debris there
You were positioned too close to the verge / kerb (right-hand bend). Because you weren't aware of the correct position
Signal once you are halfway across the first turning. Until that point, use your brake lights to warn following traffic
You signalled too early. Because you didn't realise there were two turnings close together
Use the-correct hand-positions palm away from you, to ensure you select first
The car's not moving. Because you're in the wrong gear (state which)
Look right / left / right regardless of which direction you're turning
You didn't take effective observation as you approached the junction. Because you looked left (right) only
Start the manoeuvre from a parked position close to and parallel to the kerb
You started too close to / far from / at an angle to the kerb. Because you weren't aware of your position
Adjust your seating position before setting off, so that you have good control of the steering wheel
The car was weaving along the road. Because you hadn't got groper control because you were too far away from / too close to the steering wheel
Use a smooth, firm action, taking twice as long
You're not using the handbrake properly (applying). Because you pulled it up too quickly
Use your thumb only - this will give you better control
You're not using the handbrake properly (releasing). Because you're using your fore / other finger to release it
Take a longer look, say, two seconds
You didn't look properly /take effective observation before moving off. Because you glanced too quickly to take everything in
It could be you're not sure where to position them Position your hands at either ten-to-two or quarter-to-three, whichever feels more comfortable
Your hands are too high / low on the steering wheel
Give way to pedestrians who are crossing the road you're going to enter
You alarmed the pedestrians crossing the road. Because you didn't give way to them
Look as far ahead as you can see - the limit point (explain) and scan your view back from side to side
You're driving too close to the kerb. Because you're distracted by people / shops on the left-hand side of the road
React instantly, as soon as you're given the signal
You didn't react quickly enough. Because you paused between hearing / seeing the signal and reacting
'Keep the speed at walking pace, or below, using clutch control
You took more turns than were necessary. Because you were going too fast
Hold the steering wheel with one hand to steady yourself while you use the seat adjuster
Your seat is moving backwards and forwards freely. Because you haven't steadied yourself while you make the adjustment
Scan the road ahead and look for the junction. Start the sequence earlier, say, 2 seconds
You used the MSM sequence too late. Because you weren't sure how early to use it
Check at least twice to judge a vehicle's speed and distance
You moved off unsafely. Because you misjudged the speed and distance of approaching traffic
Start your observation as soon as you're aware of the junction and keep looking as you get closer
You didn't take effective observation as you approached the junction. Because you looked only once, and too early,
Keep your speed to a walking pace. This will give you the time to look and steer
You went too far back before turning. Because you were going too fast
Use only your right foot on the gas pedal
You're using the gas pedal incorrectly. Because you're using the wrong foot
Take longer, say, 2 seconds in all, to look, and take in what you see
You didn't take effective observation as you approached the junction. Because you just had very quick glances
Steer in, to the left, to go towards the kerb, and vice-versa
You steered the wrong way. Because you got confused about which way to steer
Cancel the signal as soon as the manoeuvre is completed. Some turns will not be sharp enough to cause it to self-cancel
In the new road, you didn't cancel the signal. Because you thought it would always self-cancel
Check ahead, over your right shoulder and left shoulder before the car moves back
You didn't look properly /take effective observation before moving off. Because you didn't check blind spots all around the car
Turn once you have crossed the give way / kerb line, not before
You emerged onto the wrong side of the road turning right. Because you turned too soon
Signal for long enough that others have time to see it and react to it
Your signal was misleading. Because you only let it click twice and then cancelled it
Check all mirrors at least twice on approach to the junction, more if necessary. A secondary check will tell you if following drivers are reacting to your signal(s)
You only checked your mirrors once on approach to the junction. Because you weren't aware of the need to check them more
Position your right foot on the gas pedal
The car's not moving. Because your right foot was pressing the brake pedal
Advise pupils to consider the gradient of the road and width / sight lines / speed limits and so on Complete the turn and have the back of your car completely in the new road by the time any traffic drives by on the major road
You crossed approaching traffic unsafely
Act sensibly on the information from your mirrors - this could involve braking / positioning earlier
You didn't act on what you saw in the mirrors . Because you weren't sure what to do
Set the gas about the thickness of two one pound coins
You reversed too fast. Because you had too much gas
Look clearly between the headrests. This will give you the best view to the rear
When reversing, you weren't looking properly, taking effective observation. Because you were looking through / over the head-rest
Use it with smooth, even pressure - both up and down
You're using the gas pedal incorrectly. Because you're stamping on the pedal
Move the indicator stalk in the direction you intend to go and think it through before doing so
You signalled the wrong way. Because you weren't concentrating
Guide the pupil to a safe position on the road and re-assure them that it is correct
You're driving too wide. Because you've been accompanied by a friend / relative who said you were driving too close to the kerb
Put the clutch down just before the vehicle stops. The pedal can go down very briskly.
You took too long to stop. Because you put the clutch down too early
Start braking earlier, say, 3 car lengths, and approach at a lower speed, 5mph less. This allows yourself, and others, more time to react.
You rushed up to the crossing. Because you thought you could stop safely within the distance
Use smooth, gentle pressure on the gas and brake pedal
Your control was erratic - stop / start progress. Because your right foot was going on and off the brake / gas pedal too quickly / harshly
Keep your left foot still as the car starts to move
You stalled. Because your foot came off the clutch too quickly
When you start to steer to the right, look mainly over your right shoulder to monitor the right-side back wheel's distance from the kerb
When reversing, you weren't looking properly, taking effective observation. Because you were looking over the wrong shoulder
Steer more (advise the pupil). The sharper the corner, the more you need to steer
You went too wide around the corner. Because you didn't steer enough
Use the mirrors as soon as you are straight in the new road -there may be traffic wanting to / attempting to overtake you
You're not making effective use of your mirrors. Because you're not using them when you enter a new road
Wear your new prescription glasses / lenses and test your vision before you drive. Visit the optician if unsure
You are / were driving too close to the parked vehicles) / obstruction. Because you've changed the prescription of your glasses / lenses and either haven't adjusted or they're too strong / weak
Using your left thumb keep the button pressed in as you apply the handbrake
You're not using the handbrake properly (applying). Because you didn't press the button in
Leave the clutch pedal alone once you've selected the appropriate gear
You coasted as you turned the corner. Because you pushed the clutch pedal down as you turned
Check left blind spot first, then sweep round checking right blind spot finally
You didn't check in a logical order. Because you checked your right blind spot before the left
Look actively for crossings and be aware of where they could be placed (advise)
You didn't check your mirrors on approach to the crossing. Because you were late seeing the crossing
Look actively and plan your drive. Predict what pedestrians are likely to do
You didn't stop at the crossing, when necessary. Because you didn't see the pedestrians waiting to cross
Keep the clutch at or around the biting point, using movements .of about the thickness of a pound coin up or down
You reversed too slowly. Because you didn't bring the clutch up high enough
Wear shoes with thinner soles (not trainers) to give better control
You came to a very sharp stop. Because your footwear isn't allowing you to operate the controls precisely
Adjust the speed to suit the corner: the sharper it is, or the less you can see, the slower you need to go
You rushed up to the junction. Because you misjudged the corner
Replace your hand on the steering wheel between each gear change. This will give you 100% control of the steering
You kept your hand on the gear lever between gear changes. Because you weren't aware that you were doing it
Turn once you have crossed the give way / kerb line, and at least by the time you get to the middle of the road
You (almost) went into the opposite kerb. Because you turned too late
Keep your mind on your driving at ail times - give yourself a running commentary (either out loud or in your mind) to keep yourself alert
You're exceeding the speed limit. Because you weren't concentrating
Use large rapid movements of the wheel
Emerging, minor to major, you went on the other side of the road . Because you didn't steer enough
Set the gas about the thickness of two one-pound coins, more for uphill starts
You reversed too slowly. Because you didn't have enough gas
Check your right blind spot with frequent glances as you position the car in the gap
You didn't check properly during the manoeuvre. Because you didn't check sufficiently over your right shoulder
Use the correct hand position and amount of pressure on the gearlever
The car shuddered / laboured when you engaged the new gear. Because you selected 3rd instead of 5th or 2nd instead of 4th, and so on
Use the initials MSM to remind you to check the mirrors
You didn't check your mirrors before signalling/slowing down. Because you forgot
Don't start steering until the front of the car has crossed the give way / kerb line
The left front / back wheel went over the kerb. Because you -steered too early too much
Use the information sensibly and act accordingly (explain)
You're not making effective use of your mirrors. Because you're not acting on what you see in them
Turn sideways in your seat so that you can look squarely through the middle of the rear window
When reversing, you weren't looking properly / taking effective observation. Because you didn't turn sideways in your seat
Keep the gas set about the thickness of two one-pound coins
You stalled. Because your foot came off the gas as the clutch came up
Look at the road - if the handbrake was released would the car roll forwards or backwards?
The car 'shot' forward. Because you used the wrong hill start technique - uphill instead of downhill
Use the footbrake to slow or stop the car whilst it is moving
When you stopped you used the wrong sequence. Because you slowed / stopped the car with the handbrake
Take about half the time to pull it on
You're not using the handbrake properly (applying). Because you took too long to apply it
Find and hold the biting point before releasing the handbrake
The car rolled backwards. Because you didn't have the clutch at the biting point before you released the handbrake
Keep the car positioned centrally in lane and concentrate on what the car is doing and also what's happening ahead - don't let one overshadow the other
You were straddling the lanes. Because you were concentrating on the hazard(s) ahead
Turn the steering wheel briskly as soon as the car starts to move
You got too close to the stationary car. Because you moved forward too far without steering (enough)
Put the clutch down just before the car comes to a stop, say, within a car length from the junction
You stalled, as you pulled up at the junction. Because you didn't put the clutch down / early / enough
Plan ahead, look at the layout of the road, and adjust speed and position early and smoothly
You're driving too close to the left-side verge . Because you didn't realise that the road had narrowed on the left
Signal earlier, say, 3 car lengths earlier than you did
You signalled too late. Because you weren't aware of when you should start signalling
Say to yourself that you are driving a different vehicle and that the width, length and height will be different
You're driving too wide. Because you've been driving a different / wider car or vehicle
Supervising drivers who are not ADI's will often have a misguided sense of what is a correct position. This is because they will very rarefy have sat in the passenger seat and will not have a perspective of the road from that side. As a consequence they w
You're driving too wide. Because you've been accompanied by a friend / relative who said you were driving too close to the kerb
Position the car-just left of centre before turning right. Don't stare into the new road
You were incorrectly positioned before turning right. Because you maintained position / moved too close to middle / were on the wrong side of the road
Apply the handbrake first, and then select neutral
When you stopped you used the wrong sequence . Because you selected neutral before you applied the handbrake
Bring the clutch up fully and smoothly as soon as the new gear has been selected
You coasted on approach and while emerging. Because you changed gear but didn't bring the clutch back up
Maintain your position, keeping a constant distance from the kerb, as you approach the junction.
You were incorrectly positioned before turning left. Because you veered in / out on approach
Fluctuating speed can alarm and confuse others
Your speed fluctuated on approach. Because you misjudged your speed, slowed down too much, then speeded up
Take into account the width and speed limit of the road you're emerging into
You emerged unsafely. Because you misjudged the speed and distance of traffic approaching from the right / left / ahead
Start looking earlier, say, 2 - 3 car lengths earlier than you did. Early vision - early decision
You didn't take effective observation as you approached the crossroads. Because you started looking too late, about one car length from the crossroads
Signal about 6 - 7 car lengths from the crossroads, as a general guideline, in a 30mph limit
You signalled too early / late. Because you weren't sure when to signal
Stop earlier, say, 45cm, and where possible, avoid letting the car overhang the pavement / verge (advise where to stop)
You let the car overhang the kerb, unnecessarily. Because you didn't realise the dangers and / or where to stop
Check your door mirrors at least twice before turning. You'll then be aware of vehicles driving up on the inside / outside
You didn't check the door mirrors before turning. Because you didn't realise the importance of doing so
Select first gear to move away
The car's not moving. Because you're in neutral
Use the brakes to reduce the speed and then select the most appropriate gear - generally one application of brakes and one gear change should be all that is required
You changed down through the gears on approach to the junction. Because you thought it was acceptable; you'd been told that it was OK to do so by a relative
Use the information you receive and act accordingly (give examples)
You didn't take effective observation as you approached the crossroads. Because, although you looked, you didn't act on what you saw / heard
Fit in with other road users, within certain limitations (advise governing factors)
You're driving too fast, generally. Because you've been driving with / watching other drivers who disregard limitations
Push the clutch down in the final half to one car length
You stalled. Because you pushed the clutch down too late
Approach at such a speed that you could stop safely if necessary. In this case, approach 5 - 8mph less, start braking 3 car lengths earlier
You didn't stop at the crossing, when necessary. Because you were driving too fast
Start safety sequences - MSM -earlier, say, at least 4 or 5 car lengths earlier than you are now doing
You're rushing all your driving procedures. Because you're not planning ahead
Open your windows and actively listen for hazards before starting, and throughout this manoeuvre
When reversing, you weren't looking properly, taking effective observation. Because you didn't open the windows
Use your hand on the door pull like this (demonstrate to pupil)
You didn't check the door properly . Because you used the opening handle rather than the door pull
Start to steer the other way when the door mirror is level with the corner of the stationary car
You (almost) hit the kerb. Because you didn't take off the steering early enough
Turn the steering wheel a quarter of a turn to the left just before stopping, If it's a sharp corner
You were incorrectly positioned before turning left. Because you veered in / out on approach
Look further down the road, say 20 - 30m and use other reference points to monitor your position: door mirrors / checking forward
You veered towards the kerb. Because you were staring at the kerb and got drawn towards it
Stop parallel and alongside the car, approx 30 - 60cm from it. The narrower the gap the further out you need to be
You didn't position the vehicle correctly before starting to reverse. Because you've parked too far / close / at an angle from the car
Once the lever has clicked into place release your finger pressure
You signalled incorrectly. Because you're holding it down
Approach at such a speed that you could stop safely. A heavy vehicle could crash into you from behind, shunting you onto the crossing with serious consequences
You rushed up to the crossing. Because you were unaware of the dangers
Give way to pedestrians crossing the road you are leaving and / or entering
You didn't give way to pedestrians crossing the mouth of the crossroads. Because you didn't know / forgot you had to
Keep your hands on the rim of the wheel
You're using the steering wheel incorrectly. Because you're using the spokes of the wheel
Start steering as soon as the car moves - at least by the time the car has travelled half a car length
You drove too far in a straight line before turning. Because you didn't turn early enough
Use the sequence: off gas, clutch down
The engine roared when you changed gear. Because you didn't take your foot off the gas
Consider the type of vehicle: m/cycle sports car / LGV/ PCV and so on. It's also more difficult to judge speed and distance at night and in adverse weather conditions
You crossed approaching traffic unsafely. Because you misjudged its speed and distance
Regulate your speed on approach to fit in with others' expectations. Crawling up would confuse and alarm others
You crawled up to the junction. Because you thought it was safer
Keep your left foot still as the car starts to move
You stalled. Because you came off the clutch too quickly
Straighten up when you're about two thirds of the way round the corner
As you emerged you almost went into the kerb turning left . Because you didn't straighten up early enough
Keep the car straight, don't veer in or out before turning
You veered to the right / left before turning. Because you turned the wheel to the right / left, unnecessarily
Adjust the amount of steering to suit the corner - gradual - less, sharp - more
The left front / back wheel went over the kerb. Because you -steered too early too much
Set the gas about them thickness of two one-pound coins. Use more gas, say, another pound coin's thickness. The car's power steering / AC took some of the power so you need to compensate for this
You stalled (angled start). Because you didn't have enough gas
Take your hand off the wheel only when the car is stationary. Let the weight of the car settle on its springs before applying the handbrake
You didn't have full control when you stopped. Because you took your left hand off the steering wheel before the car stopped
Steer left, following the curve. At a sharp corner, start steering as soon as the car begins to move. The sharper the corner the more you need to steer
As you emerged you veered towards the wrong side of the road turning left. Because you drove forward too far before steering / didn't follow the curve of the kerb
Supervising drivers who are not ADI's will often have a misguided sense of what is a correct position. This is because they will very rarely have sat in the passenger seat and will not have a perspective of the road from that side. As a consequence they w
You're driving too close to the kerb. Because you've been accompanied by a friend / relative who said you were driving too far from the kerb
Turn when...(advise for left / right turns)
When turning left, major to minor, you went on to the other side of the new road. Because you didn't turn at the correct point
Keep your eyes on the road ahead when you change-gear
The car veered when you changed gear. Because you looked down at the gear lever / foot controls when you changed gear
Checking the mirrors immediately you're straight in the new road will let you know the speed and distance of following traffic
You didn't check your mirrors once you entered the new road. Because you didn't know the reasons for doing so
Look through the middle of the rear window over your left shoulder, when reversing in a straight line
When reversing, you weren't looking properly / taking effective observation. Because you were looking over the wrong shoulder
Use the information you receive and act accordingly (give examples)
You didn't take effective observation as you approached the junction. Because, although you looked, you didn't act on what you saw / heard
Use quick glances to check the instruments but look mainly ahead as far as you can see
You're driving too wide. Because you're looking down too much at the instrument
Use firm progressive (explain) pressure
You're using the gas pedal incorrectly. Because you're not putting enough pressure on the pedal
Position the car squarely in front of the bay, if possible, so that it goes in centrally
You didn't park centrally within the marked lines / parked at an angle. Because you didn't line up correctly before starting the exercise
Use large rapid movements of the wheel
Turning major to minor, you went on the other side of the road. Because you didn't steer enough
Practise using the clutch pedal, which is spring loaded, whereas the foot rest won't 'give' at all
You're using the clutch pedal incorrectly. Because you mistook the foot rest for the clutch pedal
You didn't realise that the rear wheels would cut in Turn slightly later, say, 1 m. The rear wheels take a different route to the front wheels (explain)
You clipped the kerb with the rear wheels when turning left
Check your mirrors as soon as the car is straight in the new road and before you accelerate
You didn't check your mirrors once you entered the new road. Because you were too concerned with controlling the car
You probably didn't realise why it's important to use the appropriate anchor point Check that you're putting your seat-belt into your anchor point
You've plugged your seat-belt into the anchor point on my side
Use two hands on the wheel, where possible, to maintain full control (advise pupil on hand positioning)
Your steering was erratic. Because you only used one hand on the wheel
Press the gas pedal down more -about the thickness of two one-pound coins
You stalled (level start). Because you didn't set the gas (enough)
Keep your right heel on the floor - this will give you more precise control
Your control was erratic - stop / start progress. Because your right heel was off the floor
Hold the key against the "stop" for longer, say, one second
The engine hasn't started . Because you didn't hold the key against the 'stop' for long enough
Consider that different types of vehicles .are likely to approach-at varying speeds: LGV's / PCV's / sports cars / motorbikes etc
You emerged unsafely. Because you misjudged the speed and distance of traffic approaching from the right / left / ahead
Match your speed to suit the conditions and circumstances. Fit in with other drivers / riders, within legal limits and taking conditions into account. I.E Make progress
You're driving too slowly!. Because you're unaware of the consequences of doing so
Turn once you have crossed the give way / kerb line, and at least by the time you get to the middle of the road
You (almost) went into the opposite kerb. Because you turned too late
Act sensibly on the information you receive
At the point of turn you didn't check / take effective observation. Because, although you looked, you didn't act on what you saw / heard
Advise the pupil accordingly
You've stopped too far away from the kerb. Because you couldn't judge-the correct distance
Look at the limit point (explain) and use quick glances at the verge(s) / kerb(s)
You were positioned too close to the verge / kerb (right-hand bend). Because you were staring at the left side verge / kerb
Use it with smooth, even pressure - both up and down
You're using the gas pedal incorrectly. Because you're stamping on the pedal
Use quick glances to check the mirrors well before signalling
You didn't check your mirrors before signalling/slowing down. Because you were concentrating on where to stop
Use the wheel / lever down by the right hand side of the seat (advise to suit vehicle)
You're adjusting the wrong part of the seat. Because you're not using the correct lever / wheel
Look at the gap and leave no more than a car length - a good guidelines 'tyres and tarmac' (advise)
You finished too far back from / too close to the car:. Because you weren't aware how much space you should leave
Use quick glances at the left-side kerb / verge to position the car well to the left
You were positioned too wide in the bend (right-hand bend). Because you were looking across the bend to the right and this 'pulled' you across
Know the speed limit you're in at all times (advise pupil on how to tell)
You're driving too slowly!. Because you weren't aware of the limit
Select first gear first, as a general guideline, if you're the first to arrive at a give way / unmarked crossroads
You were hesitant emerging. Because you applied the handbrake before selecting the gear
Use the interior mirror first door mirrors are usually convex and this will cause things to appear smaller and further away than they actually are
You only checked the door mirror. Because you didn't realise the difference between the door mirror and interior mirror
Put the clutch down later, say, a further 2 - 3 car lengths
You coasted on approach. Because you put the clutch down too early
Brake earlier, say, 3 car lengths earlier
You rushed up to the junction. Because you braked too late
Use a smooth positive movement with enough pressure to ensure the signal stays on
You signalled incorrectly. Because you didn't use enough pressure on the lever
Look over your left shoulder, through the middle of the rear window, when steering left and then over your right shoulder as the car nears the kerb (consider the angle of the car). Count 1 - 2 - 3 to yourself slowly, once you cross the middle of the road,
You hit the kerb, going backwards. Because you weren't looking where you were going
Keep your left thumb on the button until the handbrake has gone all the way down
You're not using the handbrake properly (releasing). Because you released the button too soon and the handbrake hasn't been fully released
Keep your mind on your driving at all times - give yourself a running commentary to keep to the tasks in hand
You didn't react quickly enough. Because you weren't concentrating
Use smooth, gentle pressure on the gas and brake
Your control was erratic - stop / start progress. Because your right foot was going on and off the brake / gas pedal too quickly /harshly
Position the car just left of the centre of the road (advise)
You were incorrectly positioned before turning right. Because you didn't adjust your position on approach / were too far to the left / right
Check mirrors as soon as you see the meet situation developing, and then glance at them as you approach
You went into a meet situation without checking mirrors first. Because you forgot / were mesmerised by oncoming traffic / stared at the approaching vehicle
Start to steer before you get to -the middle of the road / take larger bites of the wheel / steer more rapidly
You (almost) hit the opposite kerb. Because you turned too late / not enough / not briskly enough
Use the ball of your foot on the pedal and don't let your foot protrude over the length of the pedal
You're using the clutch pedal incorrectly. Because your left foot is too far up on the pedal
Scan the road ahead and look at the kerb specifically - are there dropped kerbs? Are there entrances? Is there a bend? And so on. Actively look for the hazards.
You've stopped too close to / over / a drive / junction / entrance / bend / other hazard. Because you didn't look for a safe and convenient place
Look the way the car is going, through the middle of the rear window.
When reversing, you weren't looking properly / taking effective observation. Because you were looking forward (too much)
Put outside worries or concerns to the back of your mind while you're driving
You're not checking your mirrors often enough. Because you're mentally preoccupied / not concentrating
Check mirrors well before signalling, as soon as you know you're going to be carrying out a manoeuvre - any change of speed or direction
You're not making effective use of your mirrors. Because you're checking mirrors and signalling at the same time
Keep the clutch pedal at or about the biting point. Move it about the thickness of a one-pound coin either side of the biting point, as a general guideline
Your control was erratic - stop / start progress. Because the clutch pedal travelled too far up and down
Approach at such a speed that you give yourself time to check ahead and into the new road clearly and effectively, before turning
Turning right, you cut the corner. Because you took a chance and rushed across
Adjust the amount of steering to suit the corner - gradual - less, sharp - more
The left front / back wheel went over the kerb. Because you steered too early / too much
Use the footbrake to slow the car then select the appropriate gear - gears for go, brakes for slow
The car slowed down rapidly when you changed gear. Because you selected a lower gear too early, without first braking
Check the mirrors first. Then decide when to signal. If you signal first, without checking mirrors, this could endanger or inconvenience others
You didn't use the MSM sequence in the correct order. Because you didn't know the importance of doing so
Use the MSM sequence to help you remember the routine for approaching junctions
You didn't check your door mirrors before signalling. Because you forgot / weren't concentrating / were looking at the road
Take half as long to look. If it's safe, then go.
You were hesitant moving away (from the kerb). Because you took too long looking
Keep precisely to the speed limits. There is no 10% leeway-after all, how do you know how accurate or otherwise your Speedo is. It might be reading 15% over to start with and then if you add on 10% it becomes dangerous
You're exceeding the speed limit. Because you thought that you were allowed 10% over
Look through the middle of the rear window when you're going backwards
When reversing, you weren't looking properly / taking effective observation. Because you were looking through the rear side window / ahead
Fit in with other road users, within certain limitations (advise governing factors)
You're driving too slow, generally. Because you're not aware of the need to fit in with others
Use an equal weight for each hand - imagine a pair of scales and keep the wheel balanced
The car was veering towards the kerb / middle of the road. Because you were pulling down too much with your left / right hand
Use one finger only and keep your hand on the wheel
You're not using the indicator properly . Because you've taken your hand completely off the wheel
Remain stationary until the situation has cleared
You got too close to the obstruction before moving out. Because you edged forward / moved forward slowly
Take twice as long, say, two seconds, and give yourself a chance to take in what you see
You moved off unsafely. Because you looked too quickly
Use quick glances at the Speedo to ensure you monitor your speed regularly. Don't match your speed to the car in front • it could well be disregarding speed limits
You're exceeding the speed limit. Because you were getting 'dragged' along by the car in front
Consider that different types of vehicles are likely to approach at varying speeds; LGV's / PCV's / sports cars / motorbikes etc
You emerged unsafely. Because you misjudged the speed and distance of traffic approaching from the right / left
Turn the steering wheel approximately a quarter turn towards the left / kerb
You've stopped too far away from the kerb. Because you didn't turn the steering wheel (enough)
Checking mirrors would prevent following traffic crashing into you by making you aware of their closeness and intentions
You're not checking your mirrors often enough I before signalling / changing speed I direction. Because you're unaware of the consequences of not doing so
Check all mirrors at least twice on approach to the junction, more if necessary
You only checked your mirrors once on approach to the junction. Because you weren't aware of the need to check them more
Tighten your grip on the wheel just before you start braking and don't take your hands off until the car has stopped completely
You braked incorrectly. Because you panicked and took your hand(s) off the wheel
Assess the situation each time. Don't assume that other traffic will give way to you, even if you do, in theory, have priority
You rushed into that meet situation. Because you thought you had priority
Use the brakes first, to reduce speed, and then select the most appropriate gear. Match the speed to the vision and the gear to the speed
You crawled up to the crossroads. Because you selected the lower gear, first or second, too early
Use it with smooth, even pressure - both up and down
You're using the gas pedal incorrectly. Because you're blipping the pedal
Park pretty - all road wheels straight and parallel to the kerb and with the steering wheel straight
You've finished the exercise with the wheels turned. Because you didn't appreciate the effect it could have on others
Use this routine: Interior mirror and door mirror, saying it out loud, or in your mind. Use mirrors in pairs
You didn't check the door mirrors before turning. Because you've been driving a car without door mirrors
Keep your left heel on the floor - this will give you more precise control
You're using the clutch pedal incorrectly. Because your left heel is off the floor
Signal only if it would help others. Signalling to go around parked cars can often confuse or mislead, rather than inform. Early positioning will often 'signal' your intentions more clearly
You signalled unnecessarily (when passing parked vehicles obstructions). Because you thought it was necessary
Whatever the distance, always maintain a constant distance away - don't veer in or out
You're driving too wide. Because you weren't aware of the safe and correct distance to keep
Follow it round keeping a constant distance from the kerb, If the corner is curved
You were incorrectly positioned before turning left. Because you veered in / out on approach
Take large rapid movements of the steering wheel as you emerge
You (almost) went into the opposite kerb. Because as you emerged you didn't steer briskly / enough
Maybe you thought it would give you more control? Wrap your fingers around the wheel and have your thumbs resting lightly on the rim
You've got your first / index / fore finger(s) pointing up the wheel
Consider the type of vehicle: m/cycle/ sports car / LGV/ PCV and so on. It's also more difficult to judge speed and distance at night and in adverse weather conditions
You crossed approaching traffic unsafely. Because you misjudged its speed and distance
Look and assess the speed of approaching traffic. Ask yourself if you could emerge without causing drivers on the major road to do any of the 4 S's: stop, slow down, swerve or swear
You emerged unsafely. Because you misjudged the speed and distance of traffic approaching from the right / left
Move your head physically from side to side to take in the surrounding obstructions. Visit an optician
You are / were driving too close to the parked vehicles) / obstruction. Because you've got tunnel vision
Look well ahead and seek out the clues that will tell you that you're approaching crossroads: traffic crossing, signs, breaks in the houses / buildings, white lines and so on
You rushed up to the crossroads. Because you were unaware there was a crossroads there
Check ahead, over your right shoulder and left shoulder, before the car starts to turn
At the point of turn you didn't check / take effective observation . Because you were concentrating too much on controlling the car
Take early, effective observation, checking (by looking and listening) all sources of danger
You didn't take effective observation as you approached the crossroads. Because you stared in one direction
Adjust the seat so that you can operate the pedal comfortably and properly
You're using the brake pedal incorrectly. Because you're sitting too far back
Only signal to pull up if it would help or warn another road user - this includes pedestrians, cyclists and drivers / riders to the front, sides and / or rear
You signalled unnecessarily. Because you were unsure about whether to give a signal or not
Be positive and make progress in a realistic manner, fitting in with others' expectations
You're driving too slow, generally. Because you're over cautious hesitant
Look as far up and down the road as you can. If you can't see, you can't go. Ask yourself: 'Is it safe, necessary, legal and convenient?'
You overtook / planned to overtake unsafely. Because you thought it was clear
Keep to the centre of the lane. Advanced drivers do adopt a 'wider' position on approach to a left hand bend but this is a technique, which can unnecessarily reduce margins of safety.
You were positioned too wide in the bend (left-hand bend). Because you've been advised by an advanced driver / police driver
Ask yourself: is the camber slight or steep and does the road slope?
You took more turns than were necessary. Because you misjudged the (extent of) camber / slope of road
Keep the gear lever engaged in gear all the time the car is moving. Coasting should always be avoided (explain)
You coasted on approach. Because you put the gear lever in neutral
Assess the start before you move: is it level, uphill, downhill?
You stalled. Because you misjudged the type of start
Wrap your fingers around the gear lever
You're not using the gear lever correctly . Because your fingers are extended
Act sensibly on the information You receive
You looked, but didn't take effective observation. Because you didn't act on what was seen or heard
Allow a metre for each mph you're travelling at: 40 metres at 40mph and so on. Use the two second rule to judge this
You are / were driving too close to the car in front. Because you didn't realise what the correct and safe distance should be
Scan the road ahead and look for the junction. Start the sequence earlier, say, 2 seconds
You used the MSM sequence too late. Because you weren't sure how early to use it
Keep your left thumb on the button until the handbrake has gone all the way down
You're not using the handbrake properly (releasing). Because you released the button too soon and the handbrake hasn't been fully released
Finish about 30 - 45cm from the kerb, and parallel to it; i.e. with left-side front and rear wheel the same distance from the kerb
You've finished, in the new road, too close to / far out from the kerb / at an angle. Because you didn't appreciate the effect it would have on others
Consider the type of vehicle: m/cycle sports car / LGV/ PCV and so on. It's also more difficult to judge speed and distance at night and in adverse weather conditions
You crossed approaching traffic unsafely. Because you misjudged its speed and distance
Set the gas about the thickness of two one-pound coins, more for uphill starts
You reversed too slowly. Because you didn't have enough gas
Keep your right heel on the floor - this will give you more precise control
You're using the brake pedal incorrectly. Because your right heel is off the floor
Park about 15 - 20cm from the kerb, and parallel to it
You've finished the exercise, too close to /too far from the kerb / at an angle. Because you're unaware of the 'correct distance
Check mirrors as soon as you see the crossing and then check again as you get closer
You didn't check your mirrors on approach to the crossing. Because you were mesmerised by the crossing itself
Practise using the clutch, on the left of the foot pedals
You stalled. Because you mistook the clutch-rest/another pedal for the clutch
Steer no more than 5 or 10 minutes in either direction, when reversing in a straight line
You veered in and out. Because you were steering too far one way and then too far the other way
Build up your speed briskly and smoothly as soon as it's safe to do so. Press the gas pedal down further, say, the thickness of another two one-pound coins. Stay in the lower gears for longer, say, twice as long
You're driving too slowly!. Because you took too long to build up your speed
Adjust the seat so that you can operate the pedal comfortably and properly
You're using the clutch pedal incorrectly. Because you're sitting too close
Don't move your foot so far to the left
You're using the brake pedal incorrectly. Because you mistook the clutch for the brake pedal
Use progressive braking; start off braking lightly and then increase the pressure before finally easing off and changing gear or stopping
You crawled up to the junction. Because you braked too harshly
Look at the road ahead and consider how the gradient or other feature(s) could affect your speed and make the necessary adjustments: easing off the gas; covering the brake, and so on before the car gathers speed and goes over the limit
You're exceeding the speed limit. Because you weren't aware that the road was sloping downhill
Don't check the mirrors before you brake - it will cause you to travel -further and veer
You veered as you stopped. Because you looked at the mirror(s) before / as you braked
Use the interior mirror first, then the door mirrors. The interior mirror will always give you a 'life-size' image of following traffic
You're using the mirrors incorrectly. Because you're using the door mirrors first, then the interior one
Start to steer the other way when you're about two thirds of the way around the corner
You (almost) hit the kerb, in the new road. Because you didn't take off the steering early enough
Steer left, following the curve. At a sharp corner, start steering as soon as the car begins to move. The sharper the corner the more you need to steer
As you emerged you veered towards the wrong side of the road turning left. Because you drove forward too far before steering / didn't follow the curve of the kerb
Whatever the distance, always maintain a constant distance away - don't veer in or out
You're driving too close to the kerb. Because you weren't aware of the safe and correct distance to keep
Adjust the mirrors once your seat is positioned correctly
You haven't adjusted the mirrors at all. Because you did the safety routine out of sequence
Glance into the road you're going to reverse into, as you drive across it
You didn't check properly before starting the manoeuvre. Because you didn't look into the new road as you passed
Start your observation as soon as you're aware of the crossroads and keep looking as you get closer
You didn't take effective observation as you approached the crossroads. Because you looked only once, and too early
Nod your head and smile to acknowledge courtesy. Taking your hand(s) off the wheel will reduce your control by 50%
You acknowledged a courtesy by taking your hand off the wheel . Because you were unaware of the possible consequences
Release the clutch fully when the car has travelled a short distance, say, half to one car length
You stalled (downhill start). Because you brought the clutch up while the footbrake was applied and the car was stationary
Maybe you're unsure about how to do that Position the mirror(s) (explain how) so that you get a good view to the rear and side of the vehicle, not pointing up to the sky or down to the ground
You didn't adjust the exterior mirror(s) correctly
Look as far up and down the road as you can see (the limit point - explain) and scan back from side to side
You didn't take effective observation as you approached the crossroads. Because you weren't looking far enough up and down the new road
Check all sources of danger before considering waving others on
You waved another driver / rider on unsafely. Because you didn't check effectively before doing so
Using the door mirrors will alert you to vehicles, especially two-wheelers, coming up on either side
You're not using your door mirrors (enough). Because you don't fully, understand the reasons for doing so
Release the handbrake just before the car starts to move
You stalled. Because you didn't release the handbrake
Using the mirrors will tell you about the behaviour of following traffic
You're not checking your mirrors often enough I before signalling / changing speed I direction. Because-you're unaware of the reasons for doing so
Take a longer look, say, two seconds
You didn't look properly / take effective observation before moving off. Because you glanced too quickly to take everything in
Select first gear when you're about a car length from the crossroads
You stalled as you moved away from the crossroads. Because you moved away in the gear you'd approached in
Use mirrors before any manoeuvre - change of speed or direction. Practice using the foot controls without looking down
You didn't check your mirrors before signalling/slowing down. Because you looked down at the foot controls
Use mirrors first - it will take less than half a second to do this
You didn't check your mirrors on approach to the crossing. Because you didn't want to take your eyes off the road
Take early, effective observation, checking (looking and listening) all sources of danger
You didn't take effective observation as you approached the junction. Because you stared in one direction
Keep in lane as you drive round the roundabout. If no lanes are marked you need to imagine where the lane lines would be. 'Don't encroach onto others' lanes
You straddled 'lanes' in a roundabout. Because there were no road markings you 'lost' your position
You veered in towards / away from the kerb before turning Position the car in the normal driving position (1 m from kerb) before turning left
You were incorrectly positioned before turning left
Use a smooth, firm, positive movement
You're not using the indicator properly. Because you're slamming it on
Set the gas about the thickness of two one-pound coins
You reversed too quickly. Because you had too much gas
Bring the clutch up to the biting point and then bring it up slightly more, say, about the thickness of a 10p coin
The car's not moving. Because you haven't brought the clutch up far enough
Turn the key away from you towards the front of the car (advise for vehicle being drive)
The engine hasn't started. Because you're not turning the key the correct way
Act sensibly on the information you receive
You moved off unsafely. Because, although you looked, you didn't act on what you saw / heard
Look and assess the speed of approaching traffic. Ask yourself if you could emerge without causing drivers on the major road to do any of the 4 S's: stop, slow down, swerve or swear
You emerged unsafely. Because you misjudged the speed and distance of traffic approaching from the right / left / ahead
Apply the handbrake / select neutral only when the car is stationary
You braked incorrectly. Because you took your hand off the wheel to apply the handbrake / to select neutral
Release the foot brake to set the car in motion
The car's not moving. Because you haven't released the foot brake
Check the alignment of the door mirrors every time you get in the car and adjust as necessary
You haven't adjusted the mirrors at all. Because you didn't think they were important
Select the correct gear and have the gas set and the clutch at the biting point before you take your final look
You were hesitant emerging. Because you hadn't prepared the car
Look as far ahead as you can see - the limit point (explain) and scan your view back from side to side
You're driving too close to the kerb. Because you're not looking far enough ahead.
Always check both blind spots, and mirrors, before moving away
You moved away unsafely . Because you didn't check your left and / or right blind spot before moving away
Use smooth movements up and down
You're using the clutch pedal incorrectly . Because you're jabbing at it
Turn the wheel only when the car is moving
You weren't using the steering correctly. Because you 'dry-steered' in the road
Look at the start and decide how steep the gradient is and then choose the appropriate gear (advise the pupil)
You stalled (downhill start). Because you selected a gear that was too high for the start
Use the steering wheel adjuster...(describe for your vehicle)
Your hands are catching on your legs. Because you haven't adjusted the wheel height / tilt sufficiently
Check your mirrors as soon as the car is straight in the new road and before you accelerate
You didn't check your mirrors once you entered the new road. Because you were too concerned with controlling the car
Adjust the seat so that you can operate the pedal comfortably and properly
You're using the clutch pedal incorrectly. Because you're sitting too far back
Look mainly over your left shoulder when reversing in a straight line, or to the left
When reversing, you weren't looking properly, taking effective observation. Because you were looking over the wrong shoulder
Look mainly through the middle of the rear window
You veered away from the kerb. Because you-weren't looking through the middle of the rear window
Use the 'steer and still' method (explain) and allow the steering' time to take effect
You (almost) hit the kerb, in the new road. Because you over steered and kept turning the wheel
Adjust the timing of your signal to help and warn other road users, including pedestrians
You didn't time your signal correctly. Because you didn't act on the information from your mirrors and / or what was happening ahead
Keep about 1m from the kerb / verge, where road and traffic conditions allow.
You're driving too close to the kerb. Because you weren't aware of the safe and correct distance to keep
Give the signal for as long as it takes to say slowly, 'I am slowing down or stopping'. Return the hand to the steering wheel and, if necessary, repeat after a short interval, say, 5 seconds.
You signalled incorrectly by arm. Because you gave it for too long, reducing your steering control
Be aware of situations when this would happen - steering one way then another, for example
Your signal was ineffective. Because you didn't realise that turning one way then another could affect the indicators
Take twice as long to look in the mirrors and act sensibly on what you see: how close is following traffic? Is it likely to overtake, and so on
You didn't act on what you saw in your mirrors. Because you glanced at them too quickly
Adjust them after assessing their positioning from your normal seating position, sitting squarely in your seat, facing the front
You haven't adjusted the mirrors at all. Because you were leaning towards / away from the mirror(s)
Assess the crossroads and regulate your speed to fit in with others. Take into account how busy the junction is
You crawled up to the crossroads. Because you didn't know when to start slowing down
Push the clutch down, and keep it down until the car has stopped and has been made safe
You stalled. Because you pumped the clutch
You started off too wide from the kerbs Start the manoeuvre from a position close to and parallel to the kerb. If you are wide, steer left initially to maximise road space
You took more turns than were necessary
Bring the clutch up fully and smoothly as soon as the new gear has been selected
You coasted on approach and while emerging. Because you changed gear but didn't bring the clutch back up
Scan the road ahead and look for clues: breaks in houses / buildings, traffic emerging, white lines and so on
You crawled up to the junction. Because you weren't sure where the junction was
Take half as much time to bring the clutch up / change gear
The car lost too much speed when you changed gear. Because you took too long to bring the clutch up and / or change gear
Keep to the safe driving position and make progress as normal. If you stay too far in to the left it can 'invite' others behind to overtake. They will also be confused by your 'strange' position and slow speed
You're driving too close to the kerb. Because you lacked confidence and went slowly, thinking that if you kept well to the left it would allow others to pass you
Steer briskly, taking large bites of the steering wheel
You hit the kerb, going forward. Because you didn't steer (enough)
Check ahead, over your right shoulder and left shoulder, before the car starts to turn
At the point of turn you didn't check / take effective observation . Because you were concentrating too much on controlling the car
Look and listen for clues that the signal has cancelled: no light blinking, no clicking. Re-apply it immediately
You signalled incorrectly. Because the signal cancelled (and you didn't re-apply it)
Adjust the mirrors from your normal seating position, sitting squarely in your seat, facing to the front
You haven't adjusted the mirror properly. Because you're sitting sideways / slumped in your seat
Push the clutch briskly all the way down just before the car stops
You stalled. Because you didn't push the clutch down at all
Look at the road and decide whether it's level, uphill or downhill
You reversed too quickly. Because you didn't assess the start correctly
Signal about 6 - 7 car lengths from the junction, as a general guideline, in a 30mph limit
You signalled too-early / late. Because you were unsure about when to signal
You must stop if someone is crossing, or if they have one foot on the crossing
You didn't stop at the crossing, when necessary. Because you were unaware of the regulations
Take your foot off the clutch only when the car is stationary, the handbrake is applied and the car is in neutral
You stalled. Because you took your foot off the clutch before you'd put the car in. neutral
Start reducing your speed earlier, say, 2 - 3 car lengths, so that you can fit in all elements of the system
You coasted on approach and while emerging. Because you approached too quickly and didn't give yourself enough time to go through the MSPSL sequence
Don't overtake within the zigzag area on approach to a crossing. Pedestrians will be put in danger
You overtook / you wanted to overtake on approach. Because you were unaware of the dangers
Be positive - if another road user has stopped for you and you've checked that it's safe, then carry on
When reversing, you weren't looking properly, taking effective observation. Because you waited unnecessarily
Plan ahead and expect the unexpected. Look for hazards ahead of cyclists that could cause them to swerve or wobble
You had to brake sharply. Because you didn't expect the cyclist to move out
Choose your lane early and stick to your decision
You were in the wrong lane (in a one-way system). Because you didn't plan early enough
Off gas, clutch down, should be almost simultaneous
The car jerked when you changed gear . Because there was a pause when you came off the gas before you put the clutch down
Signal no earlier than about 6 -7 car lengths, as a general guideline, from the turn. The higher the speed the earlier the signal; on Mways and unrestricted DCs this would be at the 300 yard marker
You signalled too late. Because you were unsure where the turning was
Release your finger once the lever has clicked into position
You're not using the indicator properly. Because you're holding it down
Use the interior mirror first, then the appropriate door mirror; left for left, right for right
You checked the wrong door mirror. Because you didn't know the correct sequence
Use the left hand lane except when you're overtaking
You're travelling in the wrong lane (Mway or DC). Because you didn't know which lane to choose
Use the two second rule to ensure there is sufficient space -don't guess it
You are / were driving too close to the car in front . Because you thought you had enough time and space to stop
As a guideline, don't allow more than a car length of tarmac to show, between you and the vehicle in front before you start moving away from the lights
You were hesitant moving away (at traffic lights). Because you didn't anticipate the lights changing and prepare the car
Turn at the correct point every time. Cutting the corner-could become a dangerous habit. Although it might appear to be clear there could be hidden dangers. Also, at night and in adverse weather you could not be 100% certain that there weren't pedestrians
Turning right, you cut the corner. Because you thought it was clear
Use the ball of your foot on the pedal and position your foot centrally on it.
You're using the gas pedal incorrectly. Because your right foot isn't squarely on the pedal
Begin braking with light pressure and then increase finally easing off before changing gear
You braked too harshly. Because you stamped on the brake pedal
Use the footbrake to reduce speed - it's more efficient, more controllable and helps others
You didn't use your brakes at all. Because you slowed the car down with the gears instead
Use the door mirrors as part of your overall observation strategy, for no more than a count of, say, 1 - 2 seconds
When reversing, you weren't looking properly / taking effective observation. Because you were staring in the door / interior mirrors
Use your palm away from you (for first / second)
You're not using the gear lever correctly. Because you've got your hand on top of the lever
Check all around, starting with left blind spot, before moving away
You moved off unsafely. Because you didn't carry out any observation
Keep your foot on the pedal as
You're using the clutch pedal incorrectly. Because you took your foot off and let it spring back up
Open the windows before starting this manoeuvre and actively listen for hazards
When reversing, you weren't looking properly / taking effective observation. Because you didn't open the windows
Reduce your speed by, say, half, to give you time to steer and take effective observation. Half the speed, twice as safe
You didn't park centrally within the marked lines / parked at an angle. Because you rushed the exercise, not giving yourself enough time to steer
Start reducing your speed later, say, 3 car lengths. Slowing too much / too early can alarm or inconvenience other road users
You crawled up to the crossroads. Because you thought it was safer.
Reduce your speed by 50% when the kerb appears under the lower edge of your door mirror. At this point, you're very close to the kerb, say, within 45cm (note: this will vary with different cars and drivers)
You took more turns than were necessary. Because you stopped too far from the kerb - you're unsure how to judge
Keep the clutch at about the biting point, using small movements, say, the thickness of a pound coin up or down
You took more turns than were necessary. Because you took your foot off the clutch completely
Look as far ahead as you can see-the limit point (explain) and scan your view back from side to side
You're driving too wide. Because you're staring at the oncoming traffic
Check the Speedo frequently with quick glances to ensure that your speed doesn't fluctuate. Following drivers get very confused / annoyed when your speed is varying from, say, 25 - 33mph in a 30 mph limit
Your speed was fluctuating. Because you weren't concentrating / unaware that you were doing so / didn't realise the consequences
General: Advise pupil to also take gradients and weather conditions into account when assessing speed on approach
Your speed fluctuated on approach. Because you misjudged your speed, slowed down too much, then speeded up
Release the handbrake only when the car is at the biting point
The car 'kangaroo jumped'. Because you rolled back and then brought the clutch up too quickly
Move the indicator stalk in the same direction as you want to go
You signalled the wrong way. Because you moved the indicator stalk the wrong way
Turn the steering wheel a quarter of a turn to the left just before stopping, if it's a sharp turn
You were incorrectly positioned before turning left. Because you veered in / out on approach
Use quick glances. It will only take half a second or less to check the mirrors
You're not checking your mirrors often enough I before signalling / changing speed I direction. Because you're afraid to take your eyes off the road
Keep your speed to a walking pace. This will give you the time to look and steer
You went too wide around the corner. Because you were going too fast
Move your right foot to the left on to the gas pedal, which has a certain amount of 'give'
You're using the gas pedal incorrectly. Because your foot is pressing on the-wheel arch, not the pedal
Make eye contact with pedestrians but don't wave or signal them to cross. You could be waving them into danger. Let them make their own decision as to when to cross
You stopped and waved / flashed / signalled pedestrians to cross. Because you thought it was helpful
Use a light but firm grip, as though you were holding eggs
The car was weaving along the road. Because you were gripping the steering wheel too tightly
Scan the road ahead and look for clues: amber flashing lights, traffic lights, groups of people waiting
You didn't stop at the crossing, when necessary. Because you didn't see it
Turn the wheel only when the car is moving
You dry-steered. Because you turned the wheel before the car moved
Adjust them after assessing their positioning from your normal seating position, sitting squarely in your seat, facing the front
You haven't adjusted the mirrors at all. Because you were leaning towards / away from the mirror(s)
Use the full extent of your arm. They are arm signals, not hand signals
You signalled incorrectly by arm. Because you only used your hand
Steer according to the size of the gap / turning circle of car (advise)
You've finished the exercise, too close to /too far from the kerb / at an angle. Because you didn't turn sufficiently / turned too much
Be aware of movement of the rear of the car and steer into the skid to straighten the car up
You skidded, the rear of the car went to the left / right. Because you didn't realise the car was-skidding
Anticipate that an emergency could happen anywhere at any time and be prepared to react immediately
You didn't react quickly enough. Because you didn't expect it
Signal only if it would help or warn other road users, including pedestrians, before moving away
You signalled unnecessarily (before moving away / pulling up). Because you just signalled automatically
Hold the buckle as you press the release button and feed the belt back to its resting place
You let the seat-belt fly back when you released it. Perhaps you're unaware of the reasons it's best not to do that
Look as far ahead as you can see-the limit point (explain) and scan your view back from side to side
You're driving too wide. Because you're distracted by people / shops on the other-side of the road
Look at the opposing lights, the traffic flow and, if applicable, the pedestrian phase to give you clues as to when your lights might change and when to start preparing the car to move away
You were hesitant moving away (at traffic lights) . Because you didn't anticipate the lights changing and prepare the car
Turn right-side to right-side (of the car), where practicable, or unless signs say otherwise. This is the safest method as it allows you to see the oncoming traffic. Turning left-side to left-side can block your view and also the view of the other driver
At the crossroads, you crossed oncoming traffic unsafely . Because you were unsure about which way to cross, right-side to right-side or otherwise, when the oncoming vehicle was turning right
Use the pull-push system. Doing half of it will be only 50°k effective
When turning left, major to minor, you went on to the other side of the new road. Because you only pulled down, you didn't push (or vice-versa)
Set the gas slightly - about the thickness of a pound coin -before turning the key (advise for vehicle being driven)
The engine hasn't started. Because you didn't-have enough / any gas
Act sensibly on the information that you receive
You didn't look properly /take effective observation before moving off. Because, although you looked, you didn't act on what you saw / heard
Look as far up and down the road as you can see (the limit point - explain) and scan back from side to side
You didn't take effective observation as you approached the junction. Because you weren't looking far enough up and down the new road
Turn right-side to right-side (of the car), where practicable, or unless signs say otherwise. This is the safest method as it allows you to see the oncoming traffic. Turning left-side to left-side can block your view and also the view of the other driver
You crossed approaching traffic unsafely. Because you were unsure about which way to cross, right-side to right-side or otherwise, when an oncoming vehicle was intending to turn right
Use the sequence: interior mirror, appropriate door mirror, at least twice before turning left or right
You're only using the door mirrors. Because you've been driving a van (or similar)
Scan the road ahead and look for clues that could announce a crossing: schools, stations, shopping centres and so on
You rushed up to the crossing. Because you saw the crossing late
Look at the road and decide whether it's level, uphill or downhill
You reversed too slowly. Because you didn't assess the start correctly
Use the adjustment lever (describe for your specific vehicle. Also, if it hasn't already been checked ensure the handbrake is securely on)
You haven't adjusted your seat properly. Because you haven't moved it back / forward enough
Put the clutch down later, say, 2 - 3 car lengths later
You coasted on approach. Because you put the clutch down too early
Move the lever in the direction you want to go: left for left and right for right
You signalled incorrectly. Because you signalled the wrong way
Prepare the car to move away so that when you have taken effective observation you can emerge without undue hesitation
You were hesitant moving away (emerging at a junction). Because you didn't have the car prepared / prepared early enough
Use your thumb only - this will give you better control
You're not using the handbrake properly (releasing). Because you're using your fore / other finger to release it
Look further ahead than the car in front and plan how road features will affect speed / braking, and so on
You are / were driving too close to the car in front. Because you're mesmerised by the car in front and are being 'pulled' along in a follow my leader style
Start to look earlier, say, 6 - 7 car lengths from the junction. This will enable you to proceed as soon as it's safe
You were hesitant moving away (emerging at a junction). Because you were late taking observation
Pull the door towards you first (explain why)
You didn't check the door properly. Because you pushed first, rather than pulled
Signal earlier, say 3 car lengths earlier, and in good time
Your signal was ineffective. Because you gave it too late to be of use to others
Keep your foot on the pedal as you release it slowly and smoothly
You're using the brake pedal incorrectly. Because you took your foot off and let it spring back up
Complete the turn and have the back of your car completely in the new road by the time any traffic drives by on the major road
You crossed approaching traffic unsafely. Because you misjudged its speed and distance
Use a firm positive movement to ensure the gear is selected
You're not using the gear lever correctly. Because you're not pushing the gear lever far enough forward / back
Use quick glances to check the instruments but look mainly ahead as far as you can see
You're driving too close to the kerb. Because you're looking down too much at the instruments
Hold back and let the vehicle ahead clear the crossing before deciding whether it's safe to follow
You rushed up to the crossing. Because you played 'follow my leader' over it
Use the pull-push method of steering
You're using the steering wheel incorrectly. Because you're crossing your hands
Wear your glasses / lenses for a period of time, say, at least an hour, before you drive
You are / were driving too close to the parked vehicles) / obstruction. Because you've got glasses / contact lenses for the first time and are adjusting to them
Look further ahead, say, 6 - 7 car lengths, and anticipate hold-ups
You stopped on the crossing. Because you didn't plan ahead, you were just looking at the car in front
Check mirrors and be prepared to reduce speed earlier if traffic is following closely. Remain calm and don't panic
You rushed into that meet situation. Because you felt pressured by traffic behind
Use the correct hand position on the gear lever to ensure you select the correct gear
You stalled as you moved away from the crossroads. Because you selected the wrong gear; 3rd instead of 1st, 4th instead of 2nd
Use only officially recognised signals. Other signals could be misinterpreted and lead others to proceed unsafely
You gave an unofficial signal (headlight flash, head or hand movement and so on). Because you thought it was helpful
Using your left thumb keep the button pressed in as you apply the handbrake
You're not using the handbrake properly (applying). Because you didn't press the button in
Bring the clutch up fully and smoothly once you've selected the new gear
You coasted on approach. Because you kept the clutch down after changing gear
Check ahead, over your right shoulder and left shoulder before the car moves
You didn't look properly / take effective observation before moving off. Because you didn't check blind spots all around the car
Look as far ahead as you can see - the limit point (explain) and scan your view back from side to side
You're driving too close to the kerb. Because you're staring at the kerb
Use the correct hand position on the gear lever to ensure you select the correct gear
You stalled as you moved away from the junction. Because you selected the wrong gear; 3rd instead of 1st, 4th instead of 2nd
The left-side front and rear wheels should be the same distance from the kerb (15 / 20 cm)
You've stopped at an angle / not parallel to the kerb (front of car protruding). Because you're unsure what 'parallel to the kerb' means
Check the Speedo frequently with quick glances to ensure that your speed doesn't fluctuate. Following traffic gets very confused / annoyed when your speed is varying from, say, 26 - 34mph in a 30 mph limit
Your speed was fluctuating. Because you weren't concentrating / unaware that you were doing so / didn't realise the consequences
Approach at a safe and controlled speed, such that you could stop safely, if necessary. Rushing up could alarm and confuse others, especially pedestrians
You rushed up to the crossroads. Because you didn't realise what the consequences would be
Look for road markings and signs that would tell you
You were incorrectly positioned before turning right. Because you didn't realise you were in a one-way street
Pull .up with the two bonnets 'level, or slightly further forward, say, no more than a bonnet length
You didn't position the vehicle correctly before starting to reverse. Because you've stopped too far back / too far forward of the car
Keep both feet still, as soon as the car starts moving, and until you have driven a car length. Then gradually and smoothly increase the gas and bring the clutch fully up
The car 'kangaroo jumped'. Because the clutch came up too quickly, coupled with too much gas
Start reducing your speed later, say, 3 car lengths. Slowing too much / too early can alarm or inconvenience other road users
You crawled up to the junction. Because you thought it was safer.
Look at the road ahead and actively look for the round signs. Often, the limit will change when one road joins another (advise pupil on how to look for clues)
You're exceeding the speed limit. Because you didn't see the speed limit signs
Look at the road ahead and actively look for the round signs. Often, the limit will change when one road joins another (advise pupil on how to look for clues)
You're driving too slowly!. Because you didn't see the speed limit signs
Take twice as long to bring the clutch up from the biting point
You stalled (level start). Because you brought the clutch up too quickly
Start steering the opposite way when you're about 1m from the kerb (or as you cross the middle of the road when reversing). The narrower the road the later you'd leave it to steer back
You took more turns than were necessary. Because you didn't put on opposite lock (early enough)
Adjust the headrest up or down, as necessary, but don't remove it. It is an essential safety item and could prevent a serious whiplash injury in the event of a crash
You've removed the headrest altogether. Because you thought it would give you a better view
Check all the mirrors, and up and down the road, well before you intend to overtake
You overtook / planned to overtake unsafely. Because you didn't check your mirrors
Turn your head, not your body, to glance quickly sideways into the blind spot before changing lanes or joining a Mway or DC
You veered / swerved when you changed lanes. Because as you checked your blind spot you turned your body too much and turned the steering wheel at the same time
Use the guideline: if you could walk across, you could drive across
You crossed approaching traffic unsafely. Because you misjudged its speed and distance
Plan ahead, look at the distance to the junction, and regulate your speed so that your slowing down is smooth and progressive
Your speed fluctuated on approach. Because you misjudged your speed, slowed down too much, then speeded up
Use only the left foot on the clutch
You're using the clutch pedal incorrectly. Because you're using the wrong foot
Turn a specific amount (advise for gap) and then keep the wheel still: 'steer and still'
You (almost) hit the kerb. Because you steered too much
Maintain your position, keeping a constant distance from the kerb, as you approach the crossroads.
You were incorrectly positioned before turning left. Because you veered in / out on approach
Release the handbrake just before the car moves
You stalled. Because you didn't release the handbrake
Reduce speed even further when the kerb appears under the lower edge of the your door mirror
You hit the kerb, going forward. Because you didn't accurately judge the distance to the kerb
Use quick glances, don't stare; this could cause you to veer off course
You're staring in the mirror. Because you're mesmerised by following traffic
Give driving tasks 100% concentration. Use your concentration muscle and focus on the art of controlling the car and safe road procedure
You're not checking your mirrors often enough. Because you're mentally preoccupied / not concentrating
Use firm progressive pressure on the pedal
You braked incorrectly. Because you stamped on the pedal
Use the ball of your foot on the pedal and don't let your foot protrude over the length of the pedal
You're using the brake pedal incorrectly. Because your right foot is too far up on the pedal
Set gas taking the type of start into account
You stalled. Because you didn't have enough gas
Look at it as you put it on and make sure it's flat
Your seat-belt is twisted. Because you didn't check as you put it on
Use a smooth positive movement
You signalled incorrectly. Because you slammed it on
Drive at a low speed, walking pace or less. Don't be hesitant. Be positive but not pushy.
You confused waiting pedestrians. Because you were uncertain how to deal with them
Stop parallel to the kerb, approx.) 30 - 45cm from it. The sharper the corner the further out you need to be
You didn't position the vehicle correctly before starting to reverse. Because you've parked too far/ close / at an angle from the kerb
Only turn the wheel when the car is moving
You're using the steering wheel incorrectly. Because you're turning it while the car is stationary
Look through the middle of the rear window
When reversing, you weren't looking properly, taking effective observation . Because you were looking through the rear side window
Check mirrors and steer slightly right to allow room in case they dash out into the road or step off the kerb
You drove too close to those pedestrians. Because you didn't plan or anticipate what they might do
Apply the handbrake, as a general guideline after each turn and before selecting first or reverse
You stopped unsafely. Because you didn't apply the handbrake between turns
Increase the gas slightly to overcome this effect
You stalled. Because you didn't realise that with the wheels turned there is more friction
Hold the wheel lightly but firmly, as though you were holding eggs
You're gripping the wheel too tightly - your knuckles are" showing white. Perhaps you're unsure of the required amount of grip
Use smooth movements up and down
You're using the brake pedal incorrectly. Because you're stabbing at it
Steer out / away from the kerb (the same amount as you steered left) when the front of the car is the correct distance from the kerb
You've stopped at an angle / not parallel to the kerb (rear of car protruding). Because once you'd steered in, you didn't steer out - to the right - to get yourself parallel to the kerb
Take longer, say, 2 seconds in all, to look, and take in what you see
You didn't take effective observation as you approached the crossroads. Because you just had very quick glances
Select the correct gear and have the gas set and the clutch at the biting point before you take your final look
You were hesitant emerging. Because you hadn't prepared the car
Use the seat height adjuster / seat-back adjuster and / or cushion(s) to enable you to get a better view
You've stopped too close to the car in front. Because you can't physically see enough - you're seated too low in the car
Turn later, when the back of the car is level with the end of the vehicle you're reversing behind
You got too close to the parked car. Because you steered too early
Put your clutch down just before you change gear / about a car length from the crossroads. Coasting will give you less control of the car and can cause you to approach the junction at a higher speed than you intended
You coasted on approach. Because you put the clutch down, unnecessarily
Use the mirrors as soon as you see the hazard - not several seconds later
You're not making effective use of your mirrors. Because you're using the mirrors too late
Use small inputs of steering, say, not more than 5 or 10 minutes when making minor changes of direction. The higher the speed the less steering input you'll need
The car was weaving along the road. Because you were steering too far one way and then too much the other way
Leave at least double the distance in wet weather and up to ten times the distance in snow / ice
You are / were driving too close to the car in front. Because you didn't take the weather conditions into account
Keep your left foot still as the car starts to move
You reversed too slowly. Because your foot came off the clutch too quickly
Select first gear when you're about a car length from the junction
You stalled as you moved away from the junction. Because you moved away in the gear you'd approached in
Start steering as soon as the front of the car has crossed the give way / kerb line (advise for type of corner)
When turning left, major to minor, you went on to the other side of the new road. Because you didn't steer early enough
Stiffen your right arm and tighten your grip with your right hand as you take your left hand off the wheel to change gear,
The car veered when you changed gear. Because you didn't tighten your grip with your right hand
Keep your hands on the rim of the wheel
You're using the steering wheel incorrectly. Because you're using the spokes of the wheel
Take a secondary look in your Mirrors to make sure following drivers have seen your signal(s) and are reacting
You didn't take a secondary look in your mirrors. Because you didn't realise the importance of doing so
Keep the button pressed in until the handbrake is fully applied
You're not using the handbrake properly (applying). Because you didn't keep the button pressed in
Check the mirrors immediately you see a hazard, and then keep checking
You're not checking your mirrors often enough I before signalling / changing speed I direction. Because you're mesmerised by the hazards in front
Start to straighten the car when you're (general guideline) 75% straight in the new road
In the new road, you almost went into the kerb. Because you didn't straighten up early enough
Check it Physically by pulling on the door pull
You didn't check the door properly. Because you only checked it visually
Release the handbrake just before you move away
The car's not moving. Because you didn't release the handbrake
Use the sequence: interior mirror, door mirror, at least twice before turning left or right
You're not using your door mirrors (enough). Because you've been driving a car without them
Take early effective observation, start looking, right / left / right about 6 - 7 car lengths from the junction
You didn't look as you approached the junction. Because you stared straight ahead
Act sensibly on the information you receive
You didn't use your mirrors effectively. Because, although you looked in them you didn't act on what you saw
Take larger 'bites' of the steering wheel and turn it more quickly
When turning left, major to minor, you went on to the other side of the new road. Because you didn't turn enough
Operate the handbrake using the left hand only
You're not using the handbrake properly (applying) . Because you're using your right, rather than your left, hand
Signal only if it would benefit others. An automatic signal could cause inconvenience or danger
You signalled unnecessarily. Because you signalled automatically
In theory, an advanced and experienced driver will have the experience to balance the advantage of improved vision against the possibility of something approaching wide and fast, possibly a motorbike, whose rider could well be leaning over with head and u NB: Police drivers are now trained to take up a less 'dominant' position on right-hand bends
You were positioned too wide in the bend (left-hand bend)
Drive through the crossing at a steady, constant speed. Check mirrors and then accelerate when you have cleared the crossing
You accelerated through the crossing . Because you believed it to be clear
Check the door mirrors so that you'll be aware of traffic coming up on either side; especially two-wheelers
You didn't check your door mirrors. Because you weren't aware of the reasons for doing so
Position the car about half way out imagine the middle of your car lining up with the right-hand side of the obstruction
You positioned too far out / too close to the kerb. Because you were unsure where to position yourself
Use two hands on the wheel -don't rest your arm / hand on the window sill / gear lever
The car was weaving along the road. Because you were steering with one hand only
Listen for the clicking of the indicator, and look for the blinking of the light to alert you to the indicator being on. Reapply immediately if it cancels
You didn't reapply the signal when it cancelled. Because you were unaware it had cancelled
Signal later, say 2 car lengths, to give a clearer indication of your intentions
Your signal was misleading. Because you-gave it too early
Set the choke (advise for vehicle being driven)
The engine hasn't started. Because you didn't have any / enough choke (manual choke vehicles only, when engine is cold)
Push the clutch down briskly, in the time it takes to say 'clutch down'
You stalled. Because you took too long to push the clutch down
Use the pull-push method of steering
You're using the steering wheel incorrectly. Because you're crossing your hands
Using the mirrors will tell you what the following traffic is doing / intends to do and how it will affect you, and vice-versa.
You didn't check your mirrors before signalling/slowing down. Because you didn't understand the importance of doing so
Take twice as long to allow the clutch to come up smoothly
The car jumped forward when you changed gear. Because you, brought the clutch up too quickly and harshly
Follow it round keeping a constant distance from the kerb, If the corner is shallow
You were incorrectly positioned before turning left. Because you veered in / out on approach
Look at the road: does it slope from left to right, or vice-versa? How steep is the camber?
You stalled. Because you misjudged the camber and / or slope of the road
Start the MSM routine earlier, say 2 seconds, to give yourself more time
You didn't check the door mirrors before turning. Because you didn't think there was time
Keep the clutch at or around the biting point, using movements of about the thickness of a pound coin up or down
You reversed too slowly. Because you didn't bring the clutch up high enough
Start braking later, say, 3 car lengths. Early, exaggerated reduction of speed will confuse and annoy following drivers
You approached the crossing too slowly. Because you thought it was safer
Check forward, with quick glances, every half car length
When reversing, you weren't looking properly / taking effective observation. Because you didn't check forward (enough)
Brake twice as firmly (advise / demonstrate)
You took too long to stop. Because you didn't brake firmly enough
Take large rapid movements of the steering wheel as you emerge
You (almost) went into the opposite kerb. Because as you emerged you didn't steer briskly / enough
Start looking earlier, say, 6 - 7 car lengths, so that you are ready to emerge as soon as you can see its clear
You were hesitant emerging. Because you didn't look until you got to the junction
Checking the mirrors immediately you're straight in the new road will let you know the speed and distance of following traffic
You didn't check your mirrors once you entered the new road. Because you didn't know the reasons for doing so
Plan your actions; check mirrors well before braking and consider how you could affect others
You're not making effective use of your mirrors. Because you're braking and checking mirrors simultaneously
Position your hand, palm away from / towards you (specify which) when you change gear
You selected the wrong gear. Because you didn't use the correct hand position on the lever
Start looking earlier, say, 2 - 3 car lengths earlier than you did
You didn't take effective observation as you approached the junction. Because you started looking too late, about one car length from the junction
You must not, by law, overtake the moving motor vehicle nearest the crossing, or the vehicle (including cyclists) nearest the crossing which has stopped to give way to pedestrians
You overtook / you wanted to overtake on approach. Because you didn't know the regulations
Stop 15 - 20cm from the kerb If pupil is at all unsure, show your hands apart to illustrate the distance
You've stopped too far away from the kerb. Because you didn't know, or forgot, what the correct distance is
Use the 'steer and still' method (explain) and allow the steering time to take effect
You (almost) hit the kerb. Because you over steered and kept turning the wheel
Look and go, if it's safe. If you wait unnecessarily, it is likely that something will appear
You were hesitant emerging. Because you were looking for too long, almost wanting something to appear
Look mainly through the middle of the rear window, using quick glances in door mirrors for no more than a count of say, 1 - 2
When reversing, you weren't looking properly, taking effective observation. Because you were using the door mirrors too much, staring in them
'Using the footbrake alerts others to your intentions
You didn't use your brakes at all. Because you weren't aware of the reasons / need to
Position your hands at ten-to two or quarter-to-three, as on a clock face
The car was weaving along the road. Because your hands were too low / too high on the wheel
Make eye contact and let them make their own decision about when it's safe to cross
You waved pedestrians across at the junction. Because you thought it was helpful
Plan your overtake well in advance and ask yourself: 'have I got enough space and time to complete this manoeuvre and get back to the correct side of the road without endangering others?'
You overtook / planned to overtake unsafely. Because you took a chance and rushed it
Use the left hand lane except when you're overtaking
You're travelling in the wrong lane (Mway or DC). Because your friends /relatives advised you misguidedly
Check right, left, over right, then left shoulder, before the car starts moving backwards
You didn't look behind before you started reversing. Because you weren't aware of the dangers
Use the footbrake to reduce the speed of the car
You rushed up to the crossroads. Because you slowed the car down with gears
Select the most appropriate gear for the speed - consider the speed range for each gear
The car laboured / shuddered when you changed gear. Because you selected the lower gear at too low-a speed -
Use the sequence DSSSM, say it to yourself, to ensure you carry out each aspect of the safety routine
You haven't adjusted the mirrors at all. Perhaps you forgot
Use the brakes to reduce the speed and then select the most appropriate gear - generally one application of brakes and one gear change should be all that is required
You changed down through the gears on approach to the crossroads. Because you thought it was acceptable; you'd been told that it was OK to do so by a relative
Start the sequence earlier, say, 1 - 2 seconds, to give you time to get in the necessary door mirror checks
You didn't check your door mirrors. Because you felt you didn't have time
Use the information sensibly and act accordingly, holding back / postponing the overtake, and so on
You overtook / planned to overtake unsafely. Because you didn't act on what you saw in your mirrors
Stop about three car lengths from junction (4 - 5 for right-hand reverse)
You've finished, in the road, too close to / too far from the junction. Because you're unaware of the correct distance
Give the signal for long enough, say, for 3 seconds, so that others can see it and react to it
You signalled incorrectly by arm. Because you didn't give it for long enough
Check the mirrors first. Then decide when to signal. If you signal first, without checking mirrors, this could endanger or inconvenience others
You didn't use the MSM sequence in the correct order. Because you didn't know the importance of doing so
Look well ahead and seek out the clues that will tell you that a junction is approaching; traffic crossing, signs, breaks in the houses / buildings, white lines and so on
You rushed up to the junction. Because you were unaware there was a junction there
Emerge at a steady speed such that you can steer sufficiently to make the turn
You (almost) went into the opposite kerb. Because you emerged too quickly
Look at the road and decide whether it's level, uphill or downhill and then use the appropriate technique
You stalled. Because you didn't assess the start correctly
Position the car in the normal driving position 1m from kerb
You were incorrectly positioned to go ahead. Because you were too far to the left / right
Use two hands on the wheel, where possible, to maintain full control (advise pupil on hand positioning)
Your steering was erratic. Because you only used one hand on the wheel
Keep your left heel on the floor - this will give you more precise control
Your control was erratic - stop / start progress. Because your left heel was off the floor
Check over your left and right shoulder before the car moves (if moving off from the right, check over right shoulder first)
You didn't make the necessary checks before moving. Because you didn't check the blind spots
Accelerate in the new road only when the wheels are straight and once you've checked your mirrors
You accelerated too early in the new road, putting you on the other side of the road. Because you were unaware of the correct procedure
Brake earlier, say, 3 car lengths
You rushed up to the junction. Because you didn't brake early enough
Plan your approach so that you can stop smoothly and safely. Anticipate the lights changing and adjust speed as necessary
You rushed up to the crossing. Because you wanted to beat the lights
Match your speed to suit the conditions and circumstances. Drive at such a speed that you could stop within the distance you can see to be clear
You're driving too fast for the traffic / weather conditions. Because you didn't plan or anticipate what they might do
Keep a gear engaged all the time the car is moving
You coasted on approach and while emerging. Because you put the gear lever into neutral
Act according to the behaviour of following traffic; i.e. start your braking earlier, spread it over a longer distance, and so on
You didn't use your mirrors effectively on approach. Because although you looked in them you didn't act on the information
Operate the handbrake using the left hand only
You're not using the handbrake properly (applying). Because you're using your right, rather than your left, hand
Start steering as soon as the front of the car is level with the corner (advise for type of corner)
Turning major to minor, you went on the other side of the road. Because you didn't steer early enough
Push the clutch all the way down to the floor
You stalled. Because you pushed the clutch only halfway down
Perhaps you forgot Use the sequence DSSSM, say it to yourself, to ensure you carry out each aspect of the safety routine
You haven't adjusted the mirrors at all
Keep the clutch at, or about, the biting point
You reversed too fast. Because the clutch came up too fast
Assess the type of start before you move away
You took more turns than were necessary. Because you misjudged the start you thought it was level when it was downhill
Keep the gas set as you prepare to move
You stalled. Because as the clutch came up your foot came off the gas
Keep the pressure-firmly on until the car comes to a complete stop (discuss braking in thirds)
You braked incorrectly . Because you eased off at the end of the braking
Turn a specific amount (advise for corner) and then keep the wheel still: 'steer and still'
You (almost) hit the kerb. Because you steered too much
Use quick glances - these take less' than half a second
You didn't check your mirrors before signalling/slowing down. Because you didn't want to take your eyes off the road
Emerge at a steady speed such that you can steer sufficiently to make the turn
You (almost) went into the opposite kerb. Because you emerged too quickly
Push the clutch down within the final car length
You coasted unnecessarily. Because you pushed the clutch down too early
Select first gear first, as a general guideline, if you're the first to arrive at a give way / unmarked junction
You were hesitant emerging. Because you applied the handbrake before selecting the gear
Steer in, to the left, to go towards the kerb, and vice-versa
You steered the wrong way. Because you got confused about which way to steer
Pull up about two car lengths from the corner. A guideline is so that you can see the apex (tip) of the corner in your interior mirror
You didn't position the vehicle correctly before starting to reverse. Because you've stopped too close to / far back from the corner
Turn the steering wheel briskly, taking larger 'bites'
You got too close to the stationary car. Because you used small 'bites' of the steering wheel
Maybe you thought it would give you more control? Wrap your fingers around the wheel and have your thumbs resting lightly on the rim
You've got your first / index / fore finger(s) pointing up the wheel
Look right / ahead / left / ahead right regardless of in which direction you're turning i.e. scan from right to left and back again
You didn't take effective observation as you approached the crossroads. Because you looked left (right) only
Move the lever in the direction that you'll be turning the wheel
You're not using the indicator properly. Because you've signalled the wrong way
Look the way the cars going, through the middle of the rear window
When reversing, you weren't looking properly / taking effective observation. Because you were looking forward (too much)
Start to steer when the front of the car is level with the middle.... of the road you're turning into / take larger bites of the wheel / steer more rapidly
Major to minor, you (almost) hit the opposite kerb. Because you turned too late / not enough / not briskly enough
Look clearly between the headrests - this will give you the best view to the rear
When reversing, you weren't looking properly / taking effective observation. Because you were looking through / over the head-rest
Adjust your mirrors before moving away - use the DSSSM routine to help you remember to set them
You're not making effective use of your mirrors. Because you haven't adjusted them correctly
Use the brakes first, to reduce speed, and then select the most appropriate gear. Match the speed to the vision and the gear to the speed
You crawled up to the junction. Because you selected the lower gear, first or second, too early
Turn at the correct point every time. Cutting the corner could become a dangerous habit. Although it might appear to be clear there could be hidden dangers. Also, at night and in adverse weather, you could not be 100% certain that there weren't pedestrian
Turning right, you cut the corner. Because you thought it was clear
It could be you're not sure where to position them Position your hands at either ten-to-two or quarter-to-three, whichever feels more comfortable
Your hands are too high / low on the steering wheel
Keep the button pressed in until the handbrake is fully applied. Keep your hand on the handbrake and use the same grip on it all the way down
You're not using the handbrake properly (releasing). Because you're throwing it down, letting go of it
Look at the limit point (explain) and use quick glances at the verge(s) / kerb(s)
You were positioned too wide in the bend (left-hand bend). Because you were following / looking at the white line
Advise pupils by getting them to reduce speed until the correct distance is achieved. Another method, with the car parked, is to get the pupil to pick out a landmark they think is 40m or so distant. Then point out a landmark that is 40m away to illustrate
You are / were driving too close to the car in front. Because you were unable to judge the distance correctly
Keep your left heel on the floor -this will give you more precise control
Your control was erratic - stop / start progress. Because your left heel was off the floor
Keep your right heel on the floor - this will give you more precise control
Your control was erratic - stop / start progress. Because your right heel was off the floor
Signal about 6. 7 car lengths from the junction, as a general guideline in a 30mph limit
You signalled too early / late. Because you weren't sure when to signal
Use firm progressive pressure on the pedal
You braked incorrectly. Because you pumped the brake unnecessarily
Look as far ahead as you can see-the limit point (explain) and scan your view back from side to side
You're driving too wide. Because you're not looking enough ahead
Keep the gas set about the thickness of two one-pound coins
You reversed too slowly. Because your foot came off the gas as the clutch came up
Drive forward for no more than, say, half to one car length with the clutch disengaged
You coasted for too long as you moved away. Because you didn't bring the clutch up soon enough
Keep your right heel on the floor - it will give you more precise control
You're using the gas pedal incorrectly. Because your right heel is off the floor.
Keep your hand on the wheel and use your longest, usually Middle, finger to operate the stalk
You used the indicator stalk incorrectly. Because you took your hand off the wheel
Position the car centrally in the lane. Look where you want to go
You were positioned too wide in the lane. Because you weren't aware of -the correct position / staring at right-side lane line
Start braking lightly; then increase the pressure, and then ease off as the car stops. Squeeze & Ease.
You came to a very sharp stop. Because you didn't brake progressively

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