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world cultures Africa

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what are the four main rivers of Africa?
nile river/congo river/zambezi river/niger river
what does africa's "second liberation" refer to?
liberation for african dictatorship after becoming independent from european/western imperialism
what motives did europeans have for colonizing Africa?
civilization/commerce/christianity
describe the defining characteristics of Ghana, Mali and Songhai:
strong control over the gold salt trade across the sahara/islamic
describe the effects of colonial rule on African culture and people?
killed african culture/embraced spread of western and european traditions/devalued family life
who is Charles Taylor?
former president of Liberia charged with crimes against humanity (murder, rape and use of child soldiers) and supporting RUF rebel organization
who is Leopold II?
king of Belgium. had control of current day democratic republic of congo. he exploited the human and mineral resources of the country and when people resisted labor their hands or ears were cut off. eventually europe heard about these horrors and under pressure Leopold turned over his private domain to the Belgium government.
list the major characteristics of traditional African culture:
extended family/village/rights of passage
who is Queen Mother Yaa Asatewa?
head of Asante. Resisted British rule. (fought 4 years)
who is Ellen Johnson Sirleaf?
first female president of Liberia. some people were unprepared for this change. was arrested in 1980s for supporting charles taylor.
who is Jomo Kenyatta?
1st president of Kenya. helped Kenya gain independence through violence.
what are the goals of pan-africanism?
for africans to unite in a cause to rebuild Africa. Recognized the plight of people of african descent worldwide. understood that if they came togethter they could achieve freedom faster.
who is Kwame Nkrumah?
1st president of Ghana. helped Ghana gain independence peacefully
what are the natural resources and how are they utilized (or not utilized) for africa's benefit?
gold/diamond/copper/cobalt/oil
who is Wangari Maatha?
started the greenbelt movement in 1977. beliveves that many political problems are caused by resources. promotes human rights through the environment and believes that if the environment is helped it will improve human rights in Africa. was the first woman to win the nobel peace prize in 2004. has planted 4 million trees already and has a goal of 1 billion.
describe the defining characteristics of Axum:
center of trade along the red sea/adopted christianity/trade declined with rise of islam
what is the negritude movement?
an artistic social movement that embraced African culture and beliefs. emphasized black artistic revolution
who is Desmond Tutu?
black south african leader. won the nobel peace prize. strongly opposed apartheid but neglected violence
who is Nelson Mandela?
black leader against apartheid in South Africa. went into hiding but was captured in 1964 and sentenced to life in prison. was released in 1990. helped greatly in converting apartheid into the black governed society south africa has today.
what was the purpose of the berlin conference of 1884-85?
europeans all came together (no african countries were there) to determine how african countries would be distributed bewtween western countries
who is Sunni Ali?
leader of Songhai. governed well and set up government with the best people for the job rather than people who were related to the king.
who is Mansa Musa?
Sundiata's nephew, and leader of Mali. Traveled to Arabian world on Jihad. put enough gold on the market that the gold price in Egypt did not go down for another 40 years. was know for the amount of riches he gave.
who is King Menelik?
emperor of ethiopia. fought and won against the italians.
how did the US experience in Somalia in 1993 affect foreign policy and intervention in Africa thereafter?
in somalia we were defeated by somali warriors. afterwards US decided not to get involved again in Africa with their internal issues.
who is Sundiata?
founder/first leader of Mali
who is Idi Amin?
brutal dictator of Uganda. Killed and expelled thousands of Asians. eventually forced the flee to Libya then Saudi Arabia.
who is Robert Mugabe?
leader of the independence struggle. After Zimbabwe gained independence in 1980, Mugabe became ruler.
what was the Organization of African Unity?
organization all independent african countries besides south africa joined to support independence movement and promote peace. it changed to the african union after the OAU outlived it's unsefulness because countires did not want the organization meddling in their internal affairs.

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