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AP Human Geo. Chapter 1

Terms

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cultural diffusion
the expansion and adoption of a cultural element, from its place of origin to a wider area
functional region
a region defined by the particular set of activities or interactions that occur within it
human geography
one of the two major divisions of geography; the spatial analysis of human population, its cultures, activities, and landscapes
GPS
satellite-based system for determining the absolute location of places or geographic features (Global Positioning System)
stimulus diffusion
a form of diffusion in which a cultural adaptation is created as a result of the introduction of a cultural trait from another place
absolute location
the position or place of a certain item on the surface of the Earth as expressed in degrees, minutes, and seconds of latitude and longitude
relative location
the regional position or situatioin of a place relative to the position of other places
spatial interaction
an analytical technique that estimates the number of interactions occurring an origin and destination locations
remote sensing
a method of collecting data or information through the use of instruments that are physically destant from the area or object of study
culture trait
a single element of normal parctice in a culture
thematic maps
maps that tell stories, typically showing the degree of some attribute of the movement of a geographic phenomenon
cultural ecology
the multiple interactions and relationships between a culture and the natural environment
environmental determinism
the view that the natural environmetn has a controlling influence over various aspects of human life, including cultrual development
perceptual region
a region that only exists as a conceptualization or an idea and not as a physically demarcated entity
epidemic
regional outbreak of disease
cartography
the art and science of map making, inculding data compilation, layout, and design
activity space
the space within which daily activity occurs
generalized map
to show a phenomenon on a map (ex. percipitation)
pandemic
an outbreak of a disease that spreads worldwide
connectivity
the degree of direct linkage between one particular location and other locations in a transport network
region
not evenly distributed across Earth; features that tend to be concentrated in particular areas
locational theory
a logical attempt to explain the locational pattern of an economic activity and the nammer in which its producing area are interrelated
spatial
pertaining to space on the Earth's surface; sometimes used as a synomym for geogrpahic
geographic concept
ways of seeing the world spatially that are used by geogrpahers in answering research questions
pattern
the design of a spatial distribution (ex-scattered or concentrated)
independent invention
the term for a trait with many cultural hearths that developed independent of each other
contagious diffusion
the distance-controlled spreading of an idea, innovation, or some other item through a local population by contact from person to person
distance
measurment of the physial space between two places
formal region
a type of region marked by a certain degree of homogeneity in one or more phenomena (aka uniform/homogeneous region)
accessibility
the degree of ease with which it is possible to reach a certain location from other locations
time-distance decay
the elining degree of acceptance of an idea or innovation whin increase time and distance from its point of origin or source
cultural landscape
the visible impring of human activity and culture on the landscape
relocation diffusion
sequentil diffusion process in which the item being diffused are transmitted by their carrier agents as they evacuate the old areas and relocate to new ones
fieldwork
the study of geographic phenomena by visiting places and observing how people interact with and thereby change those places
spatial perspective
observing variations in geogrpahic phemonema across space
mental map
image or picture of the way space is organized as determined by an individual's perception, impression, and knowledge of that space
five themes
developed by the Geography Educational National Implementation Project
globalization
the expansion of economic, political, and cultural processes to the point that they became global in scale an impact
isotherm
line on a map connecting points of equal temperature values
human-environment
the relationship among the phenomena in individual places- including the relationship between humans and the physical world
location
highlights how the geographical position of people and things on the Earth's surface affects what happens and why
physical geography
one of the two major divisions of systematic geography; the spatial analysis of the structure, processes, and location of the Earth's natural phenomena such as climate, soil, plants, animals, and topography
sequent occupance
the notion that successive societies leave their cultural imprints on a place, each contributing to the cumulative cultural landscape
possibilism
geographic viewpoint- a responce to determinism- that holds that human decision making, not the environment, is the crucial factor in cultural development
reference maps
maps that show the absolute location of places and geographic features determined by a frame of reference, typically latitude and longitude
spatial distribution
physical location of geographic phenomena across space
cultural barrier
prevailing cultural attitude rendering certain innovations, ideas or practices unacceptable or unadoptable in that particular culture
sence of place
state of mind derived through the infusion of a place with meaning and emotion by remembering important events that occurred in that place or by labeling a place with a certain character
political ecology
an approach to studying nature- socity relations that is concerned with the ways in which environmental issues both reflect, and are the result of, the political and socioeconomic contexts in which they are situated
place
these have unique human and physical characteristics
cultural hearth
hearthland, source area, innovation center; place of origin of a major culture
culture complex
a related set or cultural traits
landscape
the overall appeareance of an area
geocaching
a hunt for a cache, the GPS coordinates which are placed on the Internet by other geocachers
movement
the mobility of people, goods, and ideas across the surface of the planet
GIS
a collection of computer hardware and software that permits spatial data to be collected, recorded, stored, regrieved, manipulated, analyzed, and displayed to the user
expansion diffuesion
the spread of an idea or innovation through a population in an area in such a way that the number of those influenced grows continuously larger, resulting in an expanding area of dissemination
hierarchial diffusion
a form of diffusion in which an idea or innovation spreads by passing first among the most connected places or peoples
rescale
involvement of players at other scales of generate support for a position or an initiative
culture
the sum total of the knowledge, attitudes, and habitual behavior patterns shared and transmitted by the members of a society

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