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Rels 100 Unit 4

Terms

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Peter
denied Jesus, first evangelist of Christian Church
Shahadah
Muslim creed/witness
Father of Protestant Reformation
Martin Luther
Church organization: geography
diocese and parishes
God's gift/grace
sola gratia (grace alone), charis=gift/grace, Jesus is the one and only way to right relationship with God or "means of salvation"
Ummah
name of Muslim community, those who follow Qur'an vs. bloodline
Paul
wrote 2/3 to 3/4 of Bible
fana
extinction of self in the mystical experience of Sufis
Filioque
"and from the Son"
Luke
convince non Jews (Gentiles) that Jesus was Messia, stress miracles, healings, mercy, compassion, equality of all
Pentecost
Jewish festival, day Church was born
1st Christian Code
socialism/communism- sell everything and share equally
Calvinism
predestination, focused on text, theocracy
1054 CE
East and West split over the creedal filioque clause and two different religions formed
Anabaptists
rejected state church, separation of church and state, no infant baptism
chasuble
"little house", worn as a poncho over alb
Mt. Hera
where Muhammed got 1st revelation
"Seal of the prophets"
description of Muhammed, the last of all messengers
Language of Roman Empire and Christianity
Latin
synoptics
1st 3 gospels, common perspective on story of Jesus (Matthew, Mark, Luke)
Sura (h)s
chapters in the Qur'an
bishop
overseer
Protestant Reformation
faith alone, jesus alone, scripture alone, and individual relationship relationship to God and illumination of the Spirit
Abba
aramaic term for "father", pray to him
Shiite
minority "faction" of Islam
patriarch
important bishops over an entire region (Jerusalem, Rome, Alexandria, Antioch)
Icons
"image", religious painting on wood as used in Eastern Orthodox Church
Roman Catholicism
authoritative decision making: papal decree
evangelicalism and pentecostalism
internal renewal and transformation
Roman Empire contributions to Christian expression
language, architecture, clothing, ritual, church organization
authority of bible
sola scriptura (scripture alone), the only infallible source of guidance and truth is the Hebrew and Christian canon
Eastern Orthodoxy
authoritative decision-making: council consensus
Fundamentalism
external separation, protect literal interpretation of Bible
hadiths
narratives concerning words/deeds of Muhammed
Parable
Jesus used this to teach God's word so uneducated could understand and could train the disciples
Roman Catholicism
theology and piety: emphasis on Christ's crucifixion and thus human guilt and forgiveness
patriarch
father-chief
Qur'an
recitation
John
highly elaborate doctrine, Jesus' nature, emphasis on Jesus was devine and embodiment of God
Eastern Orthodoxy
theology and piety: emphasis on Christ's ressurection and thus on human mystical transformation
Assalamu 'alaykum
islamic greeting
Allah
supreme God
ecumenism
external union
Eastern Orthodoxy
creedal filioque clause: the Holy Spirit proceeds from the Father (only)
jihad
to strive/struggle, primarily in the moral development or preaching the Qur'an
Sunni
stresses practical, democratic leadership and the valuable role of reason, scholarship, and schools
Yawm al-Jum'ah
Day of Assembly (friday)
synoptics
"to see together"
Parable
story using common allegory, metaphors, and similies
3 consistent themes of all Muhammed's revelations
radical and uncompromising: monotheism (unity of God), morality (high code of conduct), equality (equally submitted erases human distinction)
du'a
personal prayer part of kutbah on Day of Assembly
Ramadan
the ninth month of the Muslim calendar, the month of fasting
Catholic Counter-reformation
good works important, veneration of Mary and saints, seven sacraments, value of tradition of Church, guided interpretation of Bible, hierarchical authority, emphasis on "collection salvation" Church is sacrament
sect
groups, a dissenting, nonconformist religious body, a group within a religious communion
predestination
the belief that God is all-powerful and all-knowing, a human being's ultimate reward or punishment is already decreed by God
Abraham
patriarchical ancestor of Jews and Muslims
Islam
related to words for peace Salaam in Arabic or Shalom in Hebrew
Kabah
cube
Edict of Toleration
313 CE, Constantine's official decree, make Christianity legal...Christians life without persecution and you can believe what you want
caliph
successor
Shiite
stresses hereditary, charismatic leadership
Jesus is innocent
legal metaphor, took on guilt of all humans, too place of suffering from sins
1st Christian Cult
baptism marks entry into Christian church, table fellowship (eating together)
caliph
a practical/democratic leader of the Ummah, in Sunni Islam
alb
"white", long white linen undergarment
cincture
cloth belt
Steps of becoming a Muslim
ritual cleansing/abultion, Reciting Shahadah, Change name
1st Christian Creed
we are in our last days, resurrection of Jesus, Jesus is Christ
Zakat
charity/alms to poor, annual tax on all property/regular acts, 2.5% of entire gross worth
Gospel
good news, synonym of Gospel
Rumi
famous Sufi, 13th century Turkish poet, encouraged mystical experpience through whirling dervishes
evangelicalism
third force in ecumenism
Muhammed
highly praised one
Mecca
birthplace of Muhammed
Eastern Orthodoxy
means of worship and proclamation: icons or images
Lutheranism
justification by faith alone, Pauline emphasis, opposed indulgences as assurance of salvation
John Calvin
Led the Reformed Tradition, Geneva, Switzerland
martyr
someone who gives up their life for their faith
filioque
a latin word added to the creeds in the Western Church to state that the Holy Spirit arises from both Father and Son
Christian Clothing
alb, cincture, chasuble- that of Roman aristocracy
kutbah
two-part sermon of Friday prayer
anabaptist
to baptize again
Islam
submission or surrender
Pope
father or papa
"Seal of revelations"
description of Qur'an, the last of all revelations
Ecumenical Church Councils
held regularly after Roman Empire dissolution purpose is to conform values and beliefs
Sawm
fasting during Ramadan
bishop
a priest and church leader who is in charge of a large geographical area (diocese)
mosque
French word describing place of worship/prostration
Night Journey, Night of Ascent
Muhammed has a transrational/mystical experience that happens, ascends into Heaven, given 5 pillars from Alla
Henry VIII
Anglican Tradition/ English Reformation
Whirling dervishes
door or opening to Allah by spinning in circles
qiblah
direction of Mecca, direction of prayer
Two Great Commandments
love God, love yourself and neighor
Whirling Dervishes
"door or opening"
Martin Luther
nailed 95 Theses on Wittenburg Door
Roman
creedal filioque clause: the Holy Spirit proceeds from the Father and the Son
pentecostalism
emphasize gifts of the spirit (charisms), known for exuberant emotional worship
Muslims
"people who submit" to God
Sermon on the Mount
new law/covenant given on mountain...love enemies
minaret
towers, where muezzin delivers adhan
Constantine
issued the Edict of Toleration
Salat
daily prayers, 5 times a day
predestination
belief of Calvinism
ecumenism
external union, worldwide church, movement toward unity of spirit and faith
testament
contract or covenant
Roman Catholicism
means of worship and proclamation: words and texts
Shirk
idolatry, any substitution for Allah
1st Christian Community
not all called Christians, Messianic Jews believed Jesus was Messiah
Eastern Orthodoxy
ecumenical councils decide, use icons and images, emphasize Christ's resurrection and human mystical transformation, the Holy Spirit proceeds from the Father (only
Mecca/Medina
Sacred cities for Muslims
Kingdom of God
radically inclusive
Architecture of Roman Empire influence Christianity
Basilica, added bell towers and baptismal pools
95 Theses
Martin Luther's thesis on what needed to be changed with the Church
Sufi
Islamic mystic
evangelicalism
internal renewal and transformation, bible as authoritative and infalliable, personal faith in Jesus as Christ, sharing faith with others
3 Main Protestant theological or spiritual principles
authority of bible, god's gift/grace, personal faith
shariah
path
Mecca
Hajj, where Muslims must go once in their lifetime
theocracy
all life organized under the rule of God
Qur'an
the holy scriptures of Islam, the revelations of Muhammed
Hijra
migrate north from Mecca to Yathrib (Medina)
Five Pillars
Shahadah, Salat, Zakat, Sawm, Hajj
muezzin
chanter, delivers adhan
hadiths
recollections/remembrances
The Holy Trinity
central doctrine developed in Roman Empire, belief that God is 3 persons in one substance: Father, Son, and Holy Spirit
imam
religious leader, especially in the hereditary lineage of Shiite Islam
Ishmael
son of Abraham, the path of Muslim roots
Church organization: leadership
bishop, patriarch, council, pope
Evangel (ist)
"good news person", synonym for Gospel
Jesus is the lamb of God
sacrificial metaphor, perfect sacrifice and perfect priest to offer sacrifice
Justification by Faith
put trust in what God did through Jesus
mihrab
a special arched niche in a masjid, indicating Mecca's direction
martyr
"a witness"
Council of Trent
1545-1563, Council of Entrenchment, defense posture of Catholics that they will keep doing what they were doing before Protestants came about
Sunna
"tradition" implying the Qur'an and hadiths together as a collective authority
Kabah
large black box that has a black stone, housed images of different dieties for every day of the year
Jinni
capricious spirits that were thought to inhabit the desert and even enter people
anabaptist
did not believe in infant baptism, only adult baptism....separation of church and state
adhan
call to prayer
Ecumenism
oikoumene or the whole inhabited earth
Bishop
episkopos
shariah
refers to the entire body of laws guiding the believer's life
fundamentalism
external separation
Incarnation
"in flesh", God became visible in Jesus
Martin Luther
father of protestant movement, Germany
Matthew
written for jewish audience...stories, metaphors that Jews will believe Jesus was Messiah, proves Jesus' geneology was good
Council of Nicaea
325 CE, conformity of belief, became unorthodox views, Christian leaders from all over came...View Jesus as fully human a nd fully divine
Sufi
emphasizes extinction of self & passionate, loving union with Allah
Pentecostals
emhasize gifts of Holy spirit, speak in tongues, 9 charisms that all Christians experience
Hanifs
a group that Muhammed joined that is meditative and they pray outside of Mecca on Mt. Hera
sect
cut or divide
Sunni
majority "tradition" of Islam
Kingdom of God
poor and oppressed are taken care of, internal, honors all who are considered lesser
Christian doctrines denied by Muslims
incarnation and Holy Trinity
masjid
arabic for Mosque...place of prostration
Anglican
compromise between Catholic and Protestant emphases: bishop structure but worship with English translation of Bible
dhikr
a devotional "remembrance" of Allah through recitation of Allah's 99 names
Justification by Faith
"made just", "we have been forgiven"
Shahadah
there is no Allah but the Allah, Muhammed is his prophet/messenger
Gospel
accounts, written by later believers, of the life of Jesus
anabaptist
sectarian group, Swiss roots, against any version of established state church
Hajj
pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in one's lifetime
Hijra
flight or migration
pope
the bishop of rome and head of the Roman Catholic Church, final authority
Mark
shortest/oldest, begins with Jesus' adult public life
Paul/Saul
had a theophany in order to believe Jesus was Messiah

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