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Human Geo vocab

Human geography vocab

Terms

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Agricultural revolution
The revolutionary transformation of agricultural practices, systems, and production. The First Agricultural Revolution, dating back 10,000 years, acheived plant and animal domestication. The Second Agricultural Revolution dovetailed with and benefited from the Industrial Revolution and witnessed improved methods of cultivation, harvesting, and storage of farm produce. The Third Agricultural Revolution , currently in progress, is based on new high-yielding strains of grains and other crops developed by genetic engineering.
Ashkenazim
One of the two main ethnic groups within the Jewish culture. This branch eventually settled in Central Europe after having been driven out of Jerusalem early in the first millenium A.D
Angiosperms
Plants whose seeds are encased in fruit
Activity or action space
The space within which daily activity occurs
Age-sex pyramid
Graphic representation (profile) of a popultion showing the percentages of the total population by age and sex, normally in five-year groups
Arable
Literally, cultivatable. Land fit for cultivation by one farming method or another.
Agarian
Relating to the use of land in rural communities or to agricultural societies in general
Arithmetic population density
The population of a country or region expressed as an average per unit area. The figure is derived by dividing the population of the areal unit by the numberr of square kilometers or miles tat make up the unit.
Assimilation
The process through which people lose originally differntiating traits, such as dress, speech particularities or manerisms, when they come in contact with another society or culture. Often used to descrice immigrant adaption to new places of residence
Areal interdependence
A term related to functional specialization. When one area produces certain goods or has certain raw materials or resources and another area has a different set of resources and produces different goods, their needs may be complimentary; by exchanging raw ,aterials and products, they can satisfy each other's requirements. The concepts of areal interdependence and complementary are related: both have to do with exchange opportunities between regions
Acropolis
Literally "high point of the city". The upper fortified part of an ancient Greek city, usually devoted to religious purposes.
Agglomeration
A process involving the clustering or concentrating of people or activities. The term often refers to manufacturing plants and businesses that benefit from close proximity because they share skilled-labor pools and technologicak and financial amenities.
Area
A term that refers to the Earth's surface with less specifity than region. For example, urban area alludes very generally to a place where urban developement has takn place, whereas urban region recquires certain specific criteria on which a delimitation is based (e.g., the spatial extent of commuting or the built townscape).
Apartheid
Literally "Apartness". The Afrikaans term given to the policies of racial seperation once practiced in South Africaand to the highly segregated sociogeographical patterns they produced- a system now being dismantled
Australopithecus
Early hominid species dating to 4-5 million years ago; branches survived the pliocene climate changes in Africa
Aquaculture
The use of a river segment or an artificial body of water such as a pond for the raising and harvesting of food products, including fish, shellfish, and even seaweed. Japan is among the world's leaders in aquaculture.
Anthropogeographi boundaries
Political boundaries hat coincide substantially with cultural discontinuities in the human landscape, such as religious or linguistic translations
Agricultural density
The number of inhabitants per unit of agricultural land. As used in population geography, agricultural density excludes urban residents so that it reflects the pressure of population in rural areas. Physiologic density measures the total population, urban and rural, against agricultural land
Aryan
From the Sanskirt Arya ("noble"), a name applied to an ancient people who spoke an Indo-European language and who moved into northern India from the northwest. Though properly a language-related term, Aryan has assumed additional meanings, especially racial ones.
Acid rain
A growing enviromental peril whereby acidified rainwater severly damages plant and animal life. Caused by the oxides of sulfur and nitrogen that are released into the atmosphere when coal,oil, and natural gas are burned, especially in major manufacturing zones
Agriculture
The purposeful tending of crops and livestock in order to produce food and fiber.
Agribusiness
A general term for large-scale, mechanized industrial agriculture that is controlled by corporate interests
Anteccedent boundary
A political boundary that existed before the cultural landscape and stayed in place while people moved in to occupy the surrounding area. An example is the 49th parallel boundary, dividing the United States and Canada between the Pacific Ocean and Lake of the Woods in northernmost Minnesota
Agglomerated (nucleated) settlement
A compact, closely packed settlement (Usually a hamlet or larger village) sharply demarcated from adjoining farmlands
Animism
The belief that inanimate objects, such as hills, rocks, rivers, and other elements of the natural landscape (including trees), possess souls and can help as well as hinder human efforts on Earth.

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