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APHG unit 3 terms

Terms

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Ghetto
A segregated ethnic area within a city.
Creole
A pidgin language that evolves to the point at which it becomes the primary language of the people who speak it.
Popular culture
Culture found in a large, heterogeneous society that shares certain habits despite differences in other personal characteristics
Franglais
A term used by the French for English words that have entered the French language, a combination of franfais and anglai." the French words for "French" and "English," respectively.
Solstice
Time when the Sun is farthest from the equator.
Cultural trait
The specific customs that are part of the everyday life of a particular culture, such as language, religion, ethnicity, social institutions, and aspects of popular culture.
Multinational state
State that contains two or more ethnic groups with traditions of self-determination that agree to coexist peacefully by recognizing each other as distinct nationalities.
Universalizing religion
Religion that seeks to unite people from all over the globe.
Ethnic neighborhood
An area within a city containing members of the same ethnic background.
Universalizing religion
A religion that attempts to appeal to all people, not just those living in a particular location.
Isolated language
A language that is unrelated to any other languages and therefore not attached to any language family.
Multi ethnic state
State that contains more than one ethnicity.
Hinduism
A cohesive and unique society, most prevalent in India, that integrates spiritual beliefs with daily practices and official institutions such as the caste system.
Polytheism
The worship of more than one god.
Missionary
An individual who helps to diffuse a universalizing religion.
Ethnic religion
Religion that is identified with a particular ethnic or tribal group and that does not seek new converts.
Ebonics
Dialect spoken by some African-Americans. Economic
Ethnic cleansing
The systematic attempt to remove all people of a particular ethnicity from a country or region either by forced migration or genocide.
Cultural geography
The subfield of human geography that looks at how cultures vary over space.
Extinct language
A language that was once used by people in daily activities but is no longer used.
Hierarchical religion
A religion in which a central authority exercises a high degree of control.
Cultural extinction
Obliteration of an entire culture by war, disease, acculturation, or a combination of the three.
Ethnic cleansing
Process in which more powerful ethnic group forcibly removes a less powerful one in order to create an ethnically homogeneous region.
Language group
A set of languages with a relatively recent common origin and many similar characteristics.
Judaism
The first major monotheistic religion. It is based on a sense of ethnic identity, and its adherents tend to form tight-knit communities wherever they live.
Denomination
A particular religious group, usually associated with differing Protestant belief systems.
Lingua franca
A language mutually understood and commonly used in trade by people who have different native languages.
Racist
A person who subscribes to the beliefs of racism.
Standard language
The form of a language used for official government business, education, and mass communications.
Diocese
The basic unit of geographic organization in the Roman Catholic Church.
Nation state
A state whose territory corresponds to that occupied by a particular ethnicity that has been transformed into a nationality.
Polytheism
Belief in or worship of more than one god. Popular culture Culture found in a large, heterogeneous society that shares certain habits despite differences in other personal characteristics.
Dialect
Geographically distinct versions of a single language that vary somewhat from the parent form.
Sino Tibetan family
Language area that spreads through most of Southeast Asia and China and is comprised of Chinese, Burmese, Tibetan, Japanese, and Korean.
Pop culture (or popular culture)
Dynamic culture based in large, heterogeneous societies permitting considerable individualism, innovation, and change; having a money-based economy, division of labor into professions, secular institutions of control, and weak interpersonal ties; and producing and consuming machine-made goods.
Romance languages
Any of the languages derived from Latin including Italian, Spanish, French, and Romanian.
Language extinction
This occurs when a language is no longer in use by any living people. Thousands of languages have become extinct over the eons since language first developed, but the process of language extinction has accelerated greatly during the past 300 years.
Toponym
Place names given to certain features on the land such as settlements, terrain features, and streams.
Vulgar Latin
A form of Latin used in daily conversation by ancient Romans, as opposed to the standard dialect, which was used for official documents.
Centripetal force
An attitude that tends to unify people and enhance support for a state.
Ecumene
The proportion of the earth inhabited by humans.
Monotheism
The worship of only one god.
Language
A system of communication through the use of speech, a collection of sounds understood by a group of people to have the same meaning.
Animism
Belief that objects, such as plants and stones, or natural events, like thunderstorms and earthquakes, have a discrete spirit and conscious life.
Pilgrimage
A journey to a place of religious importance.
Evangelical religions
Religion in which an effort is made to spread a particular belief system.
Literary tradition
A language that is written as well as spoken.
Environmental determinism
A doctrine that claims that cultural traits are formed and controlled by environmental conditions.
Sharecropper
A person who works fields rented from a landowner and pays the rent and repays loans by turning over to the landowner a share of the crops.
Fundamentalism
Literal interpretation and strict adherence to basic principles of a religion (or a religious branch, denomination, or sect).
Folk culture
Culture traditionally practiced by a small, homogeneous, rural group living in relative isolation from other groups
Official language
Language in which all government business occurs in a country.
Folk culture
Refers to a constellation of cultural practices that form the sights, smells, sounds, and rituals of everyday existence in the traditional societies in which they developed.
Cultural complex
The group of traits that define a particular culture.
Language family
A collection of languages related to each other through a common ancestor long before recorded history.
Language family
A collection of many languages, all of which came from the same original tongue long ago, that have since evolved different characteristics.
Fundamentalism
The strict adherence to a particular doctrine.
Christianity
The world's most widespread religion. Christianity is a monotheistic, universal religion that uses missionaries to expand its members worldwide. The three major categories of Christianity are Roman Catholic, Protestant, and Eastern Orthodox.
British Received Pronunciation (BRP)
The dialect of English associated With upper-class Britons living in the London area and now considered standard in the United Kingdom.
Cultural hearth
Locations on earth's surface where specific cultures first arose.
Caste
The class or distinct hereditary order into which a Hindu is assigned according to religious law.
Spanglish
Combination of Spanish and English, spoken by Hispanic-Americans.
Custom
The frequent repetition of an act, to the extent that it becomes characteristic of the group of people performing the act.
Nationalism
Loyalty and devotion to a particular nationality. Nationality Identity with a group of people that share legal attachment and personal allegiance to a particular place as a result of being born there.
Culture
A total way of life held in common by a group of people, including learned features such as language, ideology, behavior, technology, and government.
Language group
A collection of languages within a branch that share a common origin in the relatively recent past and display relatively few differences in grammar and vocabulary.
Blockbusting
A process by which real estate agents convince white property owners to sell their houses at low prices because of fear that black families will soon move into the neighborhood.
Indo European family
Language family including the Germanic and Romance languages that is spoken by about 50% of the world's people.
Ethnicity
Identity with a group of people that share distinct physical and mental traits as a product of common heredity and cultural traditions.
Diaspora
People who corne from a common ethnic background but who live in different regions outside of the home of their ethnicity.
Race
Identity with a group of people descended from a common ancestor.
Triangular slave trade
A practice, primarily during the eighteenth century, in which European ships transported slaves from Africa to Caribbean islands, molasses from the Caribbean to Europe, and trade goods from Europe to Africa.
Official language
The language adopted for use by the government for the conduct of business and publication of documents.
Dialect
A regional variety of a language distinguished by vocabulary, spelling, and pronunciation.
Pidgin
Language that may develop when two groups of people with different languages meet. The pidgin has some characteristics of each language.
Habit
A repetitive act performed by a particular individual.
Cultural imperialism
The dominance of one culture over another.
Pilgrimage
A journey to a place considered sacred for religious purposes.
Self determination
Concept that ethnicities have the right to govern themselves.
Autonomous religion
A religion that does not have a central authority but shares ideas and cooperates informally.
Caste system
System in India that gives every Indian a particular place in the social hierarchy from birth. Individuals may improve the position they inherit in the caste system in their next life through their actions, or karma. After many lives of good karma, they may be relieved from cycle of life and win their place in heaven.
Balkanization
Process by which a state breaks down through conflicts among its ethnicities.
Denomination
A division of a branch that ur1ites a number of local
Race
A group of human beings distinguished by physical traits, blood types, genetic code patterns or genetically inherited characteristics.
Shaman
The single person who takes on the roles of priest, counselor, and physician and acts as a conduit to the supernatural world in a shamanist culture.
Pidgin language
A form of speech that adopts a simplified grammar and limited vocabulary of a lingua franca, used for communications among speakers of two different languages.
Global religion
Religion in which members are numerous and widespread and their doctrines might appeal to different people from any region of the globe.
Local religion
Religions that are spiritually bound to particular regions.
Racism
Belief that race is the primary determinant of human traits and capacities and that racial differences produce an inherent superiority of a particular race.
Buddhism
System of belief that seeks to explain ultimate realities for all people-such as the nature of suffering and the path toward self-realization.
Artifact
Any item that represents a material aspect of culture ..
Pagan
follower of a polytheistic religion in ancient times. Pandemic Disease that occurs over a wide geographic area and affects a very high proportion of the population.
Lingua franca
An extremely simple language that combines aspects of two or more other, more-complex languages usually used for quick and efficient communication.
Apartheid Laws
(no longer in effect) in South Africa that physically separated different races into different geographic areas.
Language branch
A collection of languages related through a common ancestor that existed several thousand years ago. Differences are not as extensive or as old as with language families, and archaeological evidence can confirm that the branches derived from the same family.
Tradition
A cohesive collection of customs within a cultural group.
Ethnicity
Refers to a group of people who share a common identity.
Cosmogony
A set of religious beliefs concerning the origin of the universe.
Creole or creolized language
A language that results from the mixing of a colonizer's language with the indigenous language of the people being dominated.
Literacy
The ability to read and write.
Sect
A relatively small group that has broken away from an established denomination.
Custom
Practices followed by the people of a particular cultural group.
Genocide
A premeditated effort to kill everyone from a particular ethnic group.
Missionary
A person of a particular faith that travels in order to recruit new members into the faith represented.
Syncretic
Traditions that borrow from both the past and present.
Ethnic religion
A religion with a relatively concentrated spatial distribution whose principles are likely to be based on the physical characteristics of the particular location in which its adherents are concentrated.
Multicultural
Having to do with many cultures.
Ghetto
During the middle Ages, a neighborhood in a city set up by law to be inhabited only by Jews; now used to denote a section of a city in which members of any minority group live because of social, legal, or economic pressure.
Taboo
A restriction on behavior imposed by social custom. Tertiary sector The portion of the economy concerned with transportation, communications, and utilities, sometimes extended to the provision of all goods and services to people in exchange for payment.
Islam
A monotheistic religion based on the belief that there is one God, Allah, and that Muhammad was Allah's prophet. Islam is based in the ancient city of Mecca, Saudi Arabia, the birthplace of Muhammad.
Balkanized
A small geographic area that could not successfully be organized into one or more stable states because it was inhabited by many ethnicities with complex, long-standing antagonisms toward each other.
Minority
A racial or ethnic group smaller than and differing from the majority race or ethnicity in a particular area or region.
Isogloss
A boundary that separates regions in which different

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