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AP Human Geography- Unit 3, Part 3


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language convergence
languages form together into one
official language
a governmentally designated language of instruction and other official public and private communication
the limits of areal extent of particular words
knowing only one language
language replacement
Replacing a language
a person who speaks more than one language
reverse reconstruction
where you trace a language back into time, seeing how it diffused through space and time
pictures that symbolize ideas
linguistic refugee area
An area protected by isolation or inhospitable enviornmental conditions in which a language or dialect has survived
lingua franca
a common language used by speakers of different languages
the name by which a geographical place is known
isolated language
A language that is unrelated to any other languages and therefore not attached to any language family.
agriculture theory
with increased food supply and increased population, speakers from the hearth of Indo-European languages migrated into Europe
multilingual states
a state that uses many languages
language divergence
new languages are formed when a language breaks into dialects
the usage or vocabulary that is characteristic of a specific group of people
pidgin language
A form of speech that adopts a simplified grammar and limited vocabulary of a lingua franca, used for communications among speakers of two different languages.
a systematic means of communicating by the use of sounds or conventional symbols
language branch
A collection of languages related through a common ancestor that existed several thousands of years ago. Differences are not as extensive or as old as with language familes
a mother tongue that originates from contact between two languages
generic toponym
a common name
standard language
a language substantially uniform with respect to spelling, grammar, pronunciation, and vocabulary and representing the approved community norm of the tongue
conquest theory
the theory that early Proto-Indo-European speakers spread westward on horseback, overpowering earlier inhabitants and beginning the diffusion and differentiation of Indo-European tounges
monolingual states
countries in which only one language is spoken
language family
large groups of languages having similar roots
shatter belt
an area of instability between regions with opposing political and cultural values
renfrew hypothesis
three areas in and near the first agricultural hearth, gave rise to three language families: Indo-European, Arabic Languages, and mid-eastern languages

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