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Leadership 2000 & Beyond: Volume 2


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Problem-Solution Pattern
States the problem as a question, discusses facts bearing on the problem, proposes and tests possible solutions, and reccomends specific action (ie. SDA)
The formation of cadets in a group and/or wing and marching in a prescribed manner; purpose is to inspect how well a unit drills and what condition their equipment is in
The art of influencing and directing people in a way that will win their obedience, confidence, respect, and loyal cooperation in achieving a common objective
Steps to organizing your material
1. Plan for transitions 2. Plan your introduction 3. Plan your conclusion
C in the Briefing ABCs
Writing a well-organized article
1. Make your purpose clear 2. Analyze your reader 3. Define the limits of your subject 4. List specific ideas 5. Group specific ideas under main ideas
The study of reasoning; the analysis of the ideas behind statements
Win-Lose Situation
Can result from an exercise of authority or a use of mental or physical power to force compliance; leaves resentment
Deductive Reasoning
Reasoning in which conclusion is reached from previously known facts
Commanders retain authority over their unity while specialized staff officers have a limited authority to issue technical directives, too
Types of Internal Coordination
Vertical, Lateral and Informal
Time Pattern
Useful whenever time of the sequence of events is important
Military Letter
Used primarily for communication within CAP units and military agencies
Barriers to Logic
Laziness, Pretentiousness, Skepticism, Wishful thinking, Rationalizing and External influences
Personal Authorizations
Assigns a specific task to an individual
Third component of an SDA; a brief restatement of the best possible solution to the problem
Major Transition
Relates a new main point to the over-all purpose, or sub-point to the main point
Lateral Flow
Horizontal or lateral flow of communication; lets supervisors on the same organizational level coordinate their activities without referring every matter to the commander
Events or information you personally observe or that reliable witnesses report to you
The conclusions and judgements of individuals
The Use of Power
Resolves conflict by giving the "majority" power
Purposes of a ceremony
1. Promote teamwork and pride 2. Display proficiency and state of training 3. Accord distinctive honors to national symbols or individuals on special occasions
Vertical Flow
The upward and downward movement of communication through the formal structure of your unit
CAPR 10-1
Preparing and Processing CAP Coorespondence
Both sides work together, but neither really commits itself to the revised objectives
Deciding if an action is carrying out a plan, and periodically checking to see that it does
Second component of an SDA; contains five sections
Span of Control
How many people you can effectively supervise; determines whether an organizational structure will be a "flat" or a "deep" one
Categorical Syllogism
Has a major premise, a minor premise and a conclusion
Participation Letter
Verify attendance and participation at CAP activities
Null Set
The process of making decisions by doing nothing
Line Structure
The vertical line along whcih you lead your subordinates; a direct chain of command links the top level to each lower level
Simple, concise, factual presentations that have one purpose, to inform
Four types of directions
1. Demand 2. Request 3. Suggest 4. Volunteer
Types of Reasoning
Inductive and Deductive
B in the Briefing ABCs
A in the Briefing ABCs
Hypothetical Syllogism
Poses a condition that, if true, is followed by a consequence
Pre-Executive Phases of Management
Planning, Organizing and Coordinating
The Manager
Manages the resources of personnel, money, material, time and facilities used to accomplish the unit's mission
Mathematical School of Thought
Requires that decisions be based on precise analytical data
Characteristics of a Good Speaker
Intergrity, Knowledge and Skill
Management Process
1. Establish Objectives 2. Accomplish Objectives 3. Measure Results
Parcipitative Management
The heart of the win-win approach; depends on gaining your people's agreement and commitment to objectives
Special Agenda
Has temporary interest or action attached to it
Prescribed pattern
Roles of a CAP Officer
1. The Commander 2. The Manager 3. The Leader
Topic Pattern
Best if you are listing qualities, characteristics, or specifications
Traditional School of Thought
Striaght-line chain of command that places the responsibility on one person with authority to give orders to subordinates
Standing Agenda
Recurs at every meeting
Action recommended
Fourth component of an SDA; Tells the reader what action should be taken
Common Methods of Making a Speech
1. Reading from a manscript 2. Speaking from memory 3. Speaking impromptu 4. Speaking extemporaneously
Space Pattern
Useful when the information has to do with location; also known as the geography book approach
Putting the plan into action and using resources to get the mission done
Systems School of Thought
Emphasizes flow charts and, flow diagrams to plot and analyze internal and external factors and how they effect mission achievement
Established the objectives necessary to all unit's effort
Sixth component of an SDA; material necessary to support facts
Lose-Lose Situation
Neither side really gets what is wants or each side only gets part of what it wants
Case Study
A learning experience where you use a real life situation to teach something
The Leader
Has earned authority
First component of an SDA
Confrontation or Interegation
Opposing views are encouraged to present their viewpoints in hopes that this will reduce their differences
Fifth component of an SDA; signature, grade, title, and those of the other people responsible and reference to attachments
Status Data
Shows how much of something has happened to date
Line and Staff
The line retains command and operation responsibilities while a staff of specialists act as advisors on tasks that cut across the entire unit
Panel Discussion
Takes place between two or more experts and is presented as constructive arguments followed by debate, response to questions, etc.
Logical Assignment
Grouping related functions to improve operational efficiency
Formal Fallacy
Occurs when the formal rules of the syllogism are violated
Written Communication
Used for precise or complicated instructions
Directive Approach
You work directly (one-one) with someone to help solve the problem; also called the counselor-centered approach
Conflict Situations
1. Win-Win 2. Win-Lose 3. Lose-Lose
Behavioral School of Thought
Emphasizes people are its most valuable resource
Informal Fallacy
Arguements in ordinary language that cannot always be easily converted to standard form syllogisms
Endorsement Letter
Something you type at the bottom of a military level
Simply denies that the conflict exists
Unity of Command
One person has control of the activity; keeps responsibilities from overlapping
Principles of Organizing
1. Unity of Command 2. Span of Control 3. Logical Assignment 4. Delegation of Authority
Two aspects of directing
People and Procedures
Teaching Interview
The instructor questions a visiting expert and follows a highly structured plan to reach the educational objective; as the instructor you lead the expert's presentation with your questions
Types of Verbal Direction
1. Demand 2. Request 3. Suggestion 4. Volunteer
An arguement that contains a mistake in reasoning
The Commander
Legal authority to direct unit/individual activities toward accomplishing a mission
Business Letter
Used when communicating with someone outside of CAP
Delegation of Authority
Art of giving others the authority to make decisions to take action and to give orders on your behalf
Inductive Reasoning
Making conclusions based on patterns you observe
Minor Transition
Links two simple elements via word or phrase
Eclectic Approach
Using a combination of both the directive and non-directive approaches
Four essentials of directing
Focusing on the objective, stimulating cadets toward accomplishing the mission, supervising, and directing the procedure
The arrangment of cadets in an organized way
Informal Flow
Unofficial verbal or written communication that follows the informal channels (ie. grapevine)
Made up of a formation, any number of ceremonies and a review
Win-Win Situation
Problem-solving method focuses on ends or goals
Trend Data
Shows what changes have occured from one point in time to another
The process of organizing and using resources to accomplish predetermined objectives
Non-Directive Approach
Taking the cadet's point of view with the objective to cause some change or growth in the cadet; also called the client-centered approach
Types of Organizational Structures
1. Line 2. Line and Staff 3. Functional
Types of CAP Letters
1. Military 2. Business 3. Endorsement
Supression and Soothing
Conflict-reducing technique which involves supressing the differences and foucsing on the similarities in an arguement

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