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Unit 3 AP human geography

Terms

undefined, object
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contact conversion
The Spread of Religious Beliefs by Personal Contact
diaspora
the dispersion of the Jews outside Israel
convergence hypothesis
a biased approach to the study of management, which assumes that principles of good management are universal, and that ones that work well in the United States will apply equally well in other nations.
theocracy
the belief in government by divine guidance
animism
the doctrine that all natural objects and the universe itself have souls
sacred spaces
Places sacred to certain groups
ethnic neighborhood
an area within a city containing members of the same ethnic background
ethnic cleansing
the mass expulsion and killing of one ethic or religious group in an area by another ethnic or religious group in that area
pagan
a person who does not acknowledge your God
subcultures
groups that share in some parts of the dominant culture but have their own distinctive values, norms, language, and/or material culture
isolated language
A language that is unrelated to any other languages and therefore not attached to any language family.
multilingual states
a state that uses many languages
generic toponyms
The Description part of many okace-names, often repeated throughout a culture area
language divergence
new languages are formed when a language breaks into dialects
non-material culture
ideas, knowledge and beliefs that influence people's behavior
Vernacular culture region
A place that people believe exists as part of their cultural identy.
apartheid
a social policy or racial segregation involving political and economic and legal discrimination against non-whites
taboo
an inhibition or ban resulting from social custom or emotional aversion
assimilation
the process of assimilating new ideas into an existing cognitive structure
language families/groups
families that have a language
Gaia hypothesis
The idea that Earth is a living system
foodways
= the many forms and practices that define how a nation shops for, cooks, and consumes its food
Folk culture
Culture traditionally practiced by a small, homogeneous, rural group living in relative isolation from other groups.
cultural determinism
cultural influences determine the behaviors and personalities of people
acculturation
the adoption of the behavior patterns of the surrounding culture
adaptive strategy
The unique way in which each culture uses it's particular physical environment; Those aspects of culture that serve to provide the necessities of life - Food, clothing, shelter, and defense
custom
accepted or habitual practice
language
the mental faculty or power of vocal communication
maladaptive diffusion
diffusion in which image takes precedence over practicality (ie. ranch style house)
cultural nationalism
an effort to protect regional and national cultures from the homogenizing impacts of globalization, especially the penetrating influence of U.S. culture
cultural preadaptation
A Complex of adaptice traits and skills possessed in advance of migration by a group, giving them survival ability and competitve advantage in occupying the new environment
intrafaith boundaries
boundaries within a single major faith
conquest theory
theory of how proto-inko european spread into europe that speakers spread westward on horseback
ethnic homelands
A sizeable area inhabited by an ehnic minority that exhibits a strong sense of attachment to the region and often exercises some measure of politcal and social control over it
cultural imperialism
spread or advance of one culture at the expense of others or imposition on other cultures which it modifies, replaces, or destroys.
transculturation
cultural borrowing that occurs when different cultures of approximately equal complexity and technological level come into close contact
culture trait
activities and behaviors that people repeatedly practice
language replacement
Replacing a language
interfaith boundaries
boundaries between the major religions
ethnic group
people of the same race or nationality who share a distinctive culture
toponyms
Place name
linguistic refugee areas
An area protected by isolation or inhospitable environmental conditions in which a language or dialect has survived
race
a canal for a current of water, an idea used to divide humankind into categories based upon skin color and other physical characteristics.
polytheistic religions
religion in which there is a belief in many gods.
universalizing religions
seeks followers from all over the world
racism
discriminatory or abusive behavior towards members of another race
popular culture
Entertainment spread by mass communications and enjoying wide appeal. (p. 897)
religion
a strong belief in a supernatural power or powers that control human destiny
indigenous culture
A culture group that constitutes the original inhabitants of a territory, distinct from the dominant national culture, which is often derived from colonial occupation.
cultural diffusion
the spread of cultural elements from one society to another
social destination
The best place for social contact
official language
a governmentally designated language of instruction, of government, of the courts, and other official public and private communication
standard language
a language substantially uniform with respect to spelling, grammar, pronunciation, and vocabulary and representing the approved community norm of the tongue
ethnic enclave
a small area occupies by a distinctive minority culture
habit
a pattern of behavior acquired through frequent repetition
ecotheology
The Study of the influence of religious belief on habitat modification
cultural simplification
The process by which immigrant ethnic groups lose certain aspects of their traditional culture in the process of settling overseas, creating a new culture that is less complex than the old
isoglosses
the limits of areal extent of particular words
renfrew hypothesis
three areas in and around fertile crescent, gave rise to three language families.
teleology
(philosophy) a doctrine explaining phenomena by their ends or purposes
missionaries
religious teachers sent to convert natives to christianity
language convergence
collapsing of two language into one.
material culture
The physical manifestations of human activities; includes tools ,campsites, art, and structures. The most durable aspects of culture
dialect
the usage or vocabulary that is characteristic of a specific group of people
ethnic religion
A religion with a relatively concentrated spatial distribution whose principles are likely to be based on the physical characteristics of the particular location in which its adherents are concentrated
pilgrimages
Religious journeys to the Holy Land.
barrio
an urban area in a Spanish-speaking country
monotheistic religions
belief in one god
culture realm
A collective of culture regions sharing related culture systems; a major world area having sufficient distinctiveness to be perceived as set apart from other realms in terms of cultural characteristics and complexes.
culture region
includes many diffrent counties that have certain traits in common
creole
a mother tongue that originates from contact between two languages
shatter belts
an area of instability between regions with opposing political and cultural values
culture complex
A related set of culture traits descriptive of one aspect of a society's behavior or activity (may be assoc. with religious beliefs or business practices).
ideograms
The system of writing used in China and other East Asian countries in which each symbol represents an idea or concept rather than a specific sound, as is the case with letters in English.
polygot
person who speeks several languages
orthodox religions
A strand within most major religions that emphasizes purity of faith and is not open to blending with other religions
fundamentalism
the interpretation of every word in the sacred texts as literal truth
language branch
A collection of languages related through a common ancestor that existed several thousand years ago. Differences are not as extensive or old as with language families, and archaeological evidence can confirm that these derived from the same family.
secularism
a doctrine that rejects religion and religious considerations
placelessness
loss of uniqueness of a place
ethnic islands
small, usually rural and ethnically homogeneous enclaves situated within a larger and more diverse cultural context.
lingua franca
a common language used by speakers of different languages
hierarchical religions
A religion in which a central authority exercises a high degree of control
cultural hearths
Heartland, source area, innovation center, place of origin of a major culture
proselytic religions
Referred to as a Universalizing Religion, which is an attempt to be global, to appeal to all people, wherever they may live in the world, not just to those of one culture or location. There are three religions that practice this they are Christianity, Islam, and Buddhism. To proselytize is to try to convert another person to your religion. This important to HG because these are three of the biggest religions in the world they are practiced all over the world.
reverse reconstruction
To reverse any reconstruction attepmted
pidgin language
A form of speech that adopts a simplified grammar and limited vocabulary of a lingua franca, used for communications among speakers of two different languages.
monoglots
knowing only one language
ethnic substrate
Regional Cultural Distinctiveness that remains following the assimilation of an ethnic homeland
monolingual states
countries in which only one language is spoken
traditional religions
Special forms of ethnic religions distinguished by their small size, their unique identity with localized culture groups not yet fully absorbed into modern society, and their close ties to nature.

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