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Grammar and Mechanics


undefined, object
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Subject Compliment
is a noun, pronoun, or adjective that follows a linking verb. It describes or explains the simple subject.

two kinds of sc's--the predicate nominative, and then predicate adjective
Predicate Nominative
is a noun or pronoun in the predicate that explains or identifies the subject of the setence

ex) Termites are dangerous PESTS.
The new attorney general is SHE.
Mario is a very talented MUSICIAN.
Predicate Adjective
is a adjective in the predicate that modifies the subject of the setence.

The wind feels COLD [cold wind]
The ground is WET. [wet ground]
Subject compliments may also be

Two great songwriters were RICHARD RODGERS and OSCAR HAMMERSTIEN II. [compound predicate nominatives]

The pizza is HOT and SPICY. [compound predicate adjectives]
To find the subject compliment in an interrogative setence
rearrange the setence to make a statement.

Was Barbra Streisand the director?

Barbra Streisand was the DIRECTOR. [predicate adjective]
To find the subject compliment in an imperative setence
insert the understoon subject YOU.

Be prouind of your achieements!

You be PROUD of your achievements! [predicate adjective]
the subject matter of a conversation or discussion
The predicate is that part of a sentence which is not the subject but which gives information about the subject. So, in the sentence Clare went to school, 'Clare' is the subject and 'went to school' is the predicate.
what are the 3 kinds of verbs
Action Verbs
An action verb expresses action. It tells what a person or a thing does.

Muskrats swim in marshes.
We built a fantastic sandcastle.
To find out whether a word is an action verb, ask yourself whether that word expresses something you can do. Can you muskrat? No! Can you marsh? No. But can you swim? Yes—swim is an action verb.

Linking Verbs
A linking verb links the subject of the sentence with information about it. Sometimes linking verbs are called "state-of-being verbs."

Jeremy is tired.
This apple tastes so sweet.
In the first sentence, is links Jeremy to information about him-the fact that he is tired. That is his state of being.

In the second sentence, tastes links apple to information about it—its sweetness. Did you think taste was an action verb? Well, it is—when the subject is doing the tasting. But here, the apple isn't doing any tasting. The apple itself tastes sweet. That is its state of being.

Auxiliary Verbs
An auxiliary verb goes with another verb. Sometimes auxiliary verbs are called "helping verbs" because they introduce or "help out" the main verb.

Ms. Sothros is reading our stories.
We should dig for buried treasure.
In the first sentence, the auxiliary verb, is, helps out the main verb, reading, by telling when the action is taking place—right now.

In the second sentence, the auxiliary verb, should, helps out the main verb, dig, by telling about its importance—digging must be important, if it is something that should happen.

Note that you can't is or should. This reminds you that they are not action verbs.

Be, have, and do are the most common auxiliary verbs. Other common auxiliary verbs include can, could, should, would, may, might, and must
Direct Object
The Direct Object (DO) receives the action of the verb. Some students have called the DO "the victim of the verb". It is Direct because there is no preposition needed; the action goes directly to the object, with no intermediary phrases or words. My friends invited me and my room-mate. We accepted the invitation. We all drank beer and watched videos.
Indirect Object
a clause element which may come in addition to a subject, direct object, and verb. An indirect object is usually placed between the verb and the direct object, and it refers to something or somebody that benefits from the action, typically a recipient of something.
Correct usage of quotation marks
commas and periods ALWAYS go inside

Have you read "Araby"? (The question mark is part of the outer sentence, not the quoted part, so it goes outside.)

He asked, "How are you?" (The question mark is part of the quoted material, so it goes inside.)

quotations within quotations, get single quotation marks.
dialogue punctuation
All talking needs to be surrounded by quotation marks (").

"Go to your cupboard - I mean, your bedroom," he wheezed at Harry.

Instead of using a period at the end of the speech, use a comma, if you are going to tell who is talking.

"Las' time I saw you, you was only a baby," said the giant. "Yeh look a lot like yer dad, but yeh've got yer mum's eyes."

If you use a question mark, or exclamation mark, you don't need to change to a comma.

"What do they think they're doing, keeping a thing like that locked up in a school?" said Ron finally. "If any dog needs exercise, that one does."

If you have interrupted speech, to let the reader know who is speaking, a comma is needed before the break, and after the speaker's name.

"Professor," Harry gasped, "your bird - I couldn't do anything - he just caught fire -"

6. If someone is thinking about something, but doesn't say it out loud, you can either use quotation marks or not. Either way is acceptable.

Of course, he thought bitterly, Uncle Vernon was talking about the stupid dinner party.

Joanne chose not to use quotations around Harry's thoughts. She could just have easily used them like this...

"Of course," he thought bitterly, "Uncle Vernon was talking about the stupid dinner party.

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