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AP Euro Ch 10-Renaissance and Discovery (pt.1)

Terms

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Charles IV
HR Emperor from 1346-78, ruled an empire of tiny kingdoms that resisted unification
League of Venice
A league formed by Ferdinand of Aragon as a response to French invasion of Italy. Brought together Venice, Papal STates, and emperor Maximillian I against France. Eventually failed after Pope Alex VI abandoned it.
Jacob Burckhardt
a Swiss historian who wrote "The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy." Argued that the revival of ancient learning gave birth to new secular and scientific vales. Thought the Middle Ages was bad, Renaissance was super awesome
Ferdinand of Aragon
together wife his wife Isabella, they subdued their realms, secured their borders and ventured abroad militarily
Prince Henry the navigator
brother of Portugese King, captured Ceuta (north african muslim city). Religious motives and quest for gold and spices
Mannerism
a new style of art, 16th and 17th centuries. A reaction to the simplicity and symmetry of High Ren. art. More strange, individual, abnormal.
Court of Star Chamber
court that ended perversion of justice by powerful nobles by placing kings councilors as judges that were controlled by royal will
Lorenzo il Magnifico
grandson of cosimo de medici
Savanarola
convinced Florentines that Medicis were weakening Florence and it worked. He took control for next 4 years and wanted it to be a theocracy but it didn't work. PRaised France as a godsend. Florentines executed him.
Petrarch
"father of humanism." Started when he found some of Cicero's old letters, became interested in old Latin. He was educated, but not a churchman.
Amerigo Vespucci
explored South American coastline
Pico's "Oration on the Dignity of Man"
one of most famous Renaissance statements on the nature of humankind. Strong Platonic influence during Renaissance is evident in it. It drew on Platonism to depict humans as the only creatures with free will, etc.
Baldassare Castiglion
wrote Book of Courtier, as a practical guide for nobility at court of Urbino
Pazzi
a family who plotted with the pope against the Medici family.
Battle of Marignano
French troops invaded Italy for 3rd time and defeated Holy League and Swiss armies at this battle. Won France the Concordat of Bologna
Henry VII
Henry Tudor's kingly name, ist of Tudor dynasty, married daughter of Edward IV(Elizabeth of York) to combine York and Lancaster families
Christopher Columbus
landed in Bahamas in 1492.
studia humanitatis
liberal arts program of study of rhetoric, grammar, poety, history, politics, and moral philosophy. These subjects were considered dignity of human soul and prepared people for a virtuous life.
Pope Alexander VI
(Borgia family)Probably the most corrupt pope eva. supported Naples in 1490s in threatening Florence, and helped France and Louis XII reenter Italy. He wanted to secure Romagna for his family. He abandoned the League of Venice.
Tomas de Torquemada
ran the Inquisition. Isabella's confessor who monitored the activity of converted jews and Muslims
Giovanni Boccaccio
a pioneer of humanist studies. He wrote the "Decameron" and assembled a mythology encyclopedia.
Grandi
the conservative "old rich" class that ruled Florence
Juana la Loca
daughter of ferdinand and isabella who married archduke Phillip and was mother of Charles I
taille
a direct tac on peasantry that rulers levied through agreeable representative assemblies of the privelaged classes. Suspended by estates General in 1484
Battle of Bosworth Field
battle when Henry Tudor (supported by Lancasters) defeated York family (Richard III) in 1485
Lorenzo Valla
a philologist who wrote "The Elegances of the Latin Language." He wrote his expose of the donation of Constantine, which had an unintentionally strong force. made historical humanistic criticisms.
Leonardo Bruni
A Florentine, star pupil of Manuel Chrysoleras. He was the first to propose civic humanism.
Francis I
Brought France into Italy a 3rd time, defeated Holy League and swiss armies at Marignano (1515).
Charles VII
French king who ruled from 1422-1461. His army drove the English out of France
Ciompi revolt
in 1387 the popolo minuto (poor) rebelled in Florence. They ruled for next 4 years until Cosimo de' Medici
popolo minuto
lower class, poor people of Florence
virtu
the ability to act decisively and heroically for the good of the country.
Treaty of Lodi
treaty that kept internal Italy cooperating during 2nd half of 15th century. It brought Milan, naples, and Florence together. those 3 usually opposed venice and Papal States, but all 5 could unify.
Erasmus
a humanist shocked by Julius II's secular rule. wrote satire, "Julius excluded from Heaven". "Laid the egg that Luther hatched"
Visconti
a family that came to power as despots in Milan in 1278
Magellan
circumnavigated globe. Put in perspective the vastness of the world
Richard III
usurped trhone from Edward's son. Portrayed as a villain. His reign saw growth of support for Henry Tudor
podesta
strongmen, despots. hired by dominant groups in cities. they maintained law and order, to permit normal flow of business activity.
Christine de Pisan
An educated, privelaged, humanistic woman who wrote poetry and "The Treasure of the City of Ladies."
Johann Gutenberg
invented printing press
Cosimo de' Medici
(1389-1464) wealthiest Florentine and natural statesman. He internally controlled Florence; behind the scenes. He kept concilors loyal to him in the Signoria. Was head of Office of Public Debt and a patron of the Florentine Platonic Academy. His grandson was Lorenzo il Magnifico
Sforza
family that came to power in milan 1450. They were a Condottiere family: hired mercenaries
Republic of Florence
had striking social division: grandi, popolo grosso, middle class, popolo minuto
Mesta
a government backed by organization that ran farming industry. An example of developing centralized economic planning
Pope Julius II
"Warrior pope." He suppressed the Borgias and took Romagna from them to be put under papal jurisdiction. He formed 2nd Holy league with Ferdinand, Venice, Max I and Swiss. They defeated french w/ help of Swiss but were defeated later.
popolo grosso
emergent newly rich merchant class of florence capitalists and bankers; opposed grandi
Humanist education
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Niccolo Machiavelli
he reacted to the snobby late renaissance humanists only concerned with writing in Latin and narrow scholarly interests. So he wrote in Italian and made contemporary history his primary source. (2 sides of humanism). He wrote "The Prince," and wanted an internally reunited Italy.
Worms 1495
members of Reichstag won imperial ban on private warfare, creation of Supreme Court of Justice (enforce internal peace) and imperial council of Regency (coordinate imperial and internal general policy)
Reichstag
national assembly of seven electors, nonelectoral princes, and representatives. Balanced power of HREmperor
Golden Bull
a 7 member administrative body that would work with emperor
Humanism
an education program built on rhetoric and scholarshsip for their own sake. It was the study of Latin and Greek classics and ancient church fathers, both for its own sake and for the hopes of reviving ancient values, customs.
House of York
white rose. In civil war against Lancester because they were rival branches of royal family
Charles VII
(1422-1461) French king whose ministers created a permanent professional army which eventually drove England out of France
House of Lancaster
red rose. In civil war against York
Jacques Coeur
an independent merchant banker who helped develop strong economy, diplomatic corps, and national administration during rule of Charles VII
Brothers of Common LIfe
a religious movement that allowed men and women to live religious life without vows of poverty, etc. Important for spread of humanism throughout Europe
Henry Tudor
won battle of Boswoth field to gain English crown
florentine middle class
small business people of Florence who sided with the new rich against the conservative old rich
Niccolo Machiavelli
(1469-1527) Humanist who focused on lack of virtu and patriotism of Renaissance leaders. Held Republican ideals that determined people could be successful with money. wrote The Prince
Signoria
a council of 6-8 members that governed Florence.
Concordat of bologna
France won this at battle of Marignano. Gave french king control over french clergy in exchange for French recognition of pope's superiority over church councils and his right to collect annates in France.
The Prince
written by Machiavelli, probably a satire but he probably also believed in what he wrote (Real Politik)
Isabella of Castille
Married Ferdinand of Aragon in 1469 despite stronf protest of their french and portugese neighbors
Ludovico il Moro
a Milanese despot who came to power in 1490s when Milan and Naples started fighting again. Ludovico asked the french king for help and invited them to enter Italy and revive claim to Naples w/out realizing France also had claim to Milan. This caused a bunch of trouble so he joined League of VEnice to kick France out. At Fornova, he allied with Florence and they actually beat France
Maximilian I
Emperor who presided over Worms 1495
Hermandad
powerful league of cities that served the Spanish King and Queen against stubborn landowners
Charles VIII
French King who responded to Ludovico's call for help and invaded Italy. Conquered Florence, Papal States, Naples.

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