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ANTH 11 Test 2

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Which of the following archaeological cultures/material culture traditions is not associated with American southwest:
Mimbres
Salada
Sinagua
Zapotec
Hohokam




Zapotec
In addition to population pressure, which of thef ollow is the most likely reason for the adoption of agriculture in the Southwest & Northern Mexico?

A) Agriculture buffered the risk of poor hunting & gathering returns
B) Crops replaced Pleistoc
A) Agriculture buffered the resk of poor hunting and gathering returns
What apparently happened to the Ancestral Puebloan peoples living in Mesa Verde communities after AD 1300?
They moved south and took up residence in Chaco communities and around the Rio Grande
In Chaco Canyon, what is one line of evidence that Pueblo Bonito did not have a large resident population?
The low number of burials
Why do many professional archaeologists avoid pictographs and petroglyphs?
They are difficult to date and most interpretations about their meanings are speculative.
Which of the following is NOT part of the “Upper Sonoran Agricultural Complex”?
A) Manioc
B) Maize
C) Kidney Beans
D) Pinto Beans
E) Squash




Manioc
The ball court and copper bells unearthed at the Snaketown site indicate which of the following?
The Hohokam had trade relations with groups in Mexico.
8. Early Mogollon villages were typically located ______________, presumably for _____________.
A) near stands of scrub brush; a ready source of firewood
B) in river valleys; access to water
C) atop earlier Aztec sites; the ability to use abandon
E) on hilltops and bluffs; defensive purposes
What is the significance of Fajada Butte in Chaco Canyon?
It has a petroglyph placed to mark solstices and equinoxes
Which of the following is the largest center of the Lowland (Peten) Maya, with an estimated 120,000 inhabitants?
A) Teotihuacan
B) Tikal
C) Palenque
D) Copan
E) La Venta




B) Tikal
4. Raised fields separated by canals in a lake or swampy ground are known as ______________.
A) chinampas
B) ciudadelas
C) comales
D) danzantes
E) adosadas




chinampas
5. The tomb of Pacal is located in which Mayan ceremonial center?
A) Quirigua
B) Palenque
C) Copan
D) Tikal
E) Teotihuacan




B) Palenque
What is a danzante?
A) An architectural device to enhance the height of structures; also called a “roof comb”
B) A jade necklace
C) A depiction of a sacrificial victim at Monte Alban
D) A primary node in the Oaxacan irrigation system
E)
C) A depiction of a sacrificial victim at Monte Alban
Which of the following is the best known formative culture of Mesoamerica, utilizing advanced calendrical systems and abstract hieroglyphic writing?
A) Oaxacans
B) Zapotecs
C) Olmecs
D) Cichimecs
E) Mayas




Olmecs
The Bonampak murals lend support to the conclusion that the _____________, once believed to be peaceful, did infact engage in warfare between sites?
A) Aztecs
B) Teotihuacanos
C) Mayas
D) Zapotecs
E) Olmecs




Mayas
Which of the following was a smaller site in terms of population, yet an important trading center located between major urban centers in Central Mexico?
A) Monte Alban
B) Chuicuilco
C) Palenque
D) Xochicalco
E) Teotihuacan


Xochicalo
The politically dominant ethnic group in the Valley of Oaxaca during the Classic Period was the ________________.
A) Mixtec
B) Zapotec
C) Toltec
D) Maya
E) Olmec




Zapotec
1. The term "Pochteca" refers to:
A) Aztec long-distance traders
B) Toltec kings
C) Aztec warriors
D) Tlaxcalan warriors
E) Mixtec polychrome pots




Aztec long-distance traders
Teotihuacan was in decline after _________________.
A) 250 BCE
B) 550 CE
C) 900 CE
D) 250 CE
E) 1250 CE




550 CE
Mixtec craftsmen were well known for their __________________________.
A) jade masks
B) copper bells
C) obsidian production
D) featherworking
E) goldworking and brightly painted ceramics




goldworking and brightly painted ceramics
Prehistoric Maya settlements of the Yucatan obtained most of their water from _____________.
A) rainfall collected in cisterns
B) open sinkholes in the limestone around them
C) the many rivers that traverse the landscape
D) the ocean
E) we
open sinkholes in the limestone that surround them
The Toltec state flourished between ___________________.
A) 1200 – 1500 CE
B) 900 – 1200 CE
C) 600 – 900 CE
D) 250 – 900 CE
E) 100 BCE – 650 CE




900-1200 CE
What was the population of the Valley of Mexico at the time of the Spanish conquest?
A) 100,000,000
B) 1,000,000
C) 10,000,000
D) 10,000
E) 100,000




1,000,000
Cacaxtla was probably founded by _________________ who were eventually expelled by the _______________.
A) Toltecs; Mixtecs
B) Teotihuacanos; Aztecs
C) Zapotecs; Mixtecs
D) Toltecs; Aztecs
E) Chontal Maya; Toltecs




Chontal Maya; Toltecs
The Aztec Empire initiated with the forming of the Triple Alliance and a successful rebellion against the ___________________ in 1427.
A) Mixtecs
B) Tepanecs
C) Chontal Mayas
D) Mexica
E) Zapotecs




Tepanecs
The two main island cities at the heart of the Aztec empire were:
A) Texcotzingo and Texcoco
B) Tlacopan and Azcapotzalco
C) Chalco and Xochimilco
D) Tlatelolco and Tenochtitlan
E) Tula and Tollan




D) Tlatelolco and Tenochtitlan
The largest pyramid in the Americas was built at which of the following sites?
A) Teotihuacan
B) Tula
C) Tenochtitlan
D) Cacaxtla
E) Cholula




Cholula
In the Mississippian region, an important non-agricultural source of protein was provided by ______________.
A) Algae
B) Wild beans
C) Maize
D) Human Flesh
E) Fish




Fish
Middle Mississippian sites typically DID NOT have which of the following?
A) Draft animals
B) Chiefdom level social complexity
C) Earthen mounds
D) Palisades
E) Artifacts of the Southern Ceremonial Complex




Draft Animals
Between 600 and 800 CE, the nature of hunting and warfare in many parts of Eastern North America was changed by _____________________.
A) changes in settlement density
B) a severe reversal in climatic trends
C) advent of widespread use of the bow
advent and widespread use of the bow and arrow
Cahokia most likely reached a maximum population of ______________.
A) 40,000
B) 500
C) 20,000
D) 6,000
E) 1,000




6,000
The most distantly procured marine shell at Spiro Mounds came from as far away as _____________________.
A) the Caribbean Sea
B) the Pacific Ocean
C) the Arctic Ocean
D) the Gulf of Mexico
E) the Atlantic Ocean




the pacific ocean
Which of the following is NOT true of the "Vacant Quarter"?
A) is was centered on the American Bottom of the Mississippi Valley
B) it resulted from the collapse of Middle Mississippi chiefdoms
C) it was depopulated by epidemics
D) it was a 15t
inhabitants were forced to move out by more powerfull peoples

How can we tell that Mississippian people were eating more maize than people that came before them?
A) there are elevated levels of Carbon-13 (13C) in their bones
B) there are murals showing men farming
C) archaeologists have found special tools
A) there are elevated levels of Carbon-13 (13C) in their bones
The rank system of the Natchez had the effect of ____________________.
A) permanently excluding lower classes from the upper ranks
B) prohibiting intermarriage between groups
C) delegating particular economic roles to particular subsets of the so
slowly providing upward social mobility over the course of generations
Which of the following is NOT generally true of chiefdoms?
A) The chief is not all-powerful
B) They are very stable and often last for a very long time
C) They have two or more levels of integration
D) They are more complex than tribes
E) C
They are very stable and often last for a very long time
Distinctive globular form shell-tempered cooking pots, often with strap handles and incised designs, are a cultural marker of which of the following groups?
A) Onondaga
B) Oneota
C) Seneca
D) Mohawk
E) Cheyenne




Oneota
What characterizes graves at the Norris Farm site in western Illinois?
A) Elaborate burial mounds replete with luxury goods that signify elite status
B) Evidence of violence, suggesting endemic warfare
C) Graves are located beneath vacated longho
Evidence of violence, suggesting endemic warfare
n what general region did Siouan and Algonquian groups rely heavily on wild rice for subsistence?
A) Great Lakes
B) Hudson Bay
C) Appalachian Mountains
D) New England
E) Mid-Atlantic coast




great lakes
Unlike most other Eastern Algonquian groups, the ____________ chiefdom of coastal Virginia relied on maize agriculture to fuel its emergence as a ranked political organization.
A) Shawnee
B) Mitla
C) Powhatan
D) Cheyenne
E) Huron

<
powhatan
Over time, Cheyenne subsistence adaptation shifted from:
A) maize horticulture to hunting-gathering to bison hunting
B) bison hunting to bean cultivation to maize/bean/squash cultivation.
C) bison hunting to maize agriculture to wild rice gatheri
wild rice gathering to maize horticulture to bison hunting.
The League of the Iroquois was created primarily __________________.
A) to exchange food in times of need
B) to defend against the encroaching Europeans
C) as a solution to endemic warfare
D) to ensure subjugation of ethnic outgroups
E) to
as a solution to endemic warfare
Epidemics in the American Northeast in general were delayed by _______________.
A) Iroquoian social organization
B) the Little Ice Age
C) the great vacant areas of low population in the Appalachians
D) the absence of European children who carr
D) the absence of European children who carried the germs that Native Americans lacked immunity towards
Algonquian rock art emphasizes imagery of _________________.
A) warfare and human sacrifice
B) transformation and sexuality
C) political organization
D) agriculture
E) hunting




B) transformation and sexuality
Beans became an important dietary component in the northeast after 1200 C.E. reducing the reliance on __________.
A) wild rice
B) gourds
C) hunting
D) maize
E) squash




hunting
During the Medieval Maximum the boundary at which 120 frost free days occur annually shifted further _____________.
A) West
B) North
C) South
D) East
E) Northeast




B) North
When did the first farmers push to the southwest from Mexico?
1000 BCE
When did hohokam communities with irrigation systems appear by?
1 CE
What brought on the collapse of hohokam irrigation systems? (2 things)
Climatic change, widespread erosion
Tree rings show severe droughts following
1150 CE
Which pottery is popular with modern collectors because of the colors and abstract decorative motifs?
Mimbres
What was an important southwestern population center not isolated from other developments?
Paquime
Irrigation systems tend to collapse without:
centralized control, like in the pueblo grande site
What did early Mogollon villages consist of?
small sets of pit houses on high ground
What kind of pottery developed from Mexican prototypes but differed from Hohokam pottery?
Mogollon
What culture was the archaic foundation of the ancestral pueblo tradition?
Oshara culture
What has provided a precise chronology for the ancestral pueblo tradition?
Dendrochronology (tree ring dating)
Villages with surface rooms gradually replaced pithouse villages, but the pithouse form was preserved in what?
subterranean kivas
What was a northern branch of the ancestral pueblo best known for dramatic cliff dwellings?
mesa verde
What was a network of exchange between ancestral pueblo communities? When did it arise?
The Chaco phenomenon, 860 CE
Which villages featured D-shaped pueblos?
major chacoan villages
What was Chaco Canyon known for?
straight roads connecting it to distant outlier pueblos
When did the chaco phenomenon end and why?
Ended by drought around 1130 CE
What culture developed in the wake of a volcanic eruption?
sinagua culture
What was Fremont? When did it develop? Features?
Another marginal southwestern tradition developed in the Great Basin around 400 CE. Wore moccasins instead of sandles, made potery, built houses & storage facilities, raised maize but overall looked like poor cousins of other Southwestern peoples.
Where did many Ancestral Pueblo migrants move?
the upper Rio Grande region of New Mexico
Ancestral pueblo immigrants to the southern part of the Southwest stimulated the production of what kind of pottery?
Salado
What culture descends from the Ancient Pueblo tradition but speak a unique language?
Zunis
What culture persists as a vibrant pueblo culture surrounded by navajo communities?
Hopi
What 2 cultures of migrants spread across the Southwest after 1500?
Navajo and Apache
What was one of the formative cultures of Mesoamerica and when did they exist?
Olmecs, 1250-400 BCE
Olmec polities were probably:
chiefdoms with rankings.
Where are key olmec sites found?
Mexican gulf coast lowlands with outposts in the highlands
What did Olmec calendrics include?
the long count, the 260 day calendar, the 365 day calendar...all important features of later mesoamerican calendarics
Abstract writing was present in which culture?
Olmec
Where was early Classic Mesoamerican cultural development most prominent?
Basin of Mexico
What surpassed Cuicuilco to become the greatest urban center in Classic Mesoamerica? Why?
Teotihuacan after a volcano erupted near cuicuilco
The pyramid of the sun, pyramid of the moon, and avenue of the dead were all principal features of which city?
Teotihuacan
What was Oaxca?
Another important scene of classic development in mesoamerica home to zapotec speaking peoples who farmed maize, avocados, beans, squash, had irrigation systems, but had to import luxury goods. Craftspeople supplied magentite mirrors, pottery to Olmec trading network
What declined as a classic center after the collapse of Teotihuacan?
Monte Alban
Where did the classic maya culture develop?
the tropical peten region of eastern mesoamerica
What did the maya living in the peten have to import?
obsidian and jade
Who took calendrics & writing to their highest levels of development in the americas?
the maya
Who did maya adopt the long count from?
Olmecs
What was tikal?
large and complex classic maya center, had pyramids and 120,000 people. characterized by hereditary stratification, ball courts, palaces, inscriptions about kings & conquests, human sacrifice, religious ritual
What was Palenque?
architecturally sophisticated maya center w/temple of the inscriptions that tell of violence, has tomb of Pacal, palace, maya roof combs
When and why did maya ceremonial centers in the peten region?
during the 9th century CE because of reasons related to climate
Who built the first major empire in the Basin of Mexico after the fall of Teotihuacan?
Toltecs
What was the capital of the Toltec empire?
tula
What was Cholula?
competing center, had the biggest pyramid in the americas
What was founded under teotihuacan influence but survived through the toltec period?
Tajin
What did the aztecs call themselves? Where did they come from?
Mexica, farming communities northwest of the basin of mexico
What was the dominant city state in the Valley of Mexico after the fall of the Toltec empire?
Azcapotzalco
What city was a center of the arts during the reign of the leader Nezahualcoyotl?
Texcoco
The aztec empire developed after what event? what year?
Mexica rebellion agains the tepanecs in 1427
What was the most important of the aztecs two island cities?
Tenochtitlan
what was a market city established by the aztecs, one of two island cities in lake texcoco that they developed?
Tlatelolco
what were "flowery wars?"
important for military display and the capture of sacrificial victims
When & why did the aztec empire end?
spanish conquest in 1521
What site is a suviving example of mixtec architecture?
mitla
what was a unique but short-lived florescence on the yucatan peninsula?
the puuc phenomenon
What emerged as the largest northern maya center but ws probably taken over by mexican elite before its demise around 1250?
chichen itza
what site produced a treasure of mixteca-puebla pottery?
zaachila
Who dominated at uxmal and other puuc centers?
petty kings but all of them were abandoned by 1000 CE
what came to dominate diets?
plant foods, including maize that originated in mexico
Wh was burdened with cultivation?
mostly women
when did maize become a staple?
after 800 CE
chiefdoms are more _____ than tribes but are ______ in the long temer.
complex, unstable
How did chiefdoms signal their rank?
through mound architecture and monuments to revered ancestors
What was the largest middle mississipian town & center of an important chiefdom?
cahokia near st. louis
What is the Southeastern ceremonial complex?
a loose set of standard symbolic artifacts

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