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Anthropolgy Essays for Final Exam


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The core is the dominant position in the world system that includes the strongest and most powerful nations. It has many sophisticated technologies and mechanized productions that produce products that flow to other cores.
The periphery are nations less with less power, wealth and influence than the core has. The periphery is less mechanized and produces raw materials, agricultural commodities and increasing human labor for export to the core.
The separation of workers from the means of production
Green Revolution
The green revolution is a revolution in which new crops are created along with chemical fertilizers, pesticides and new cultivation techniques. The revolution helped to increase the world’s food supply and thus improve the diets and living conditions of victims of poverty, particularly in land-scarce, overcrowded regions. Wheat and rice doubled or tripled supplies in many Third World countries.
Equity is the even distribution of money, property and goods. Increased equity is reduced poverty and a move even distribution of wealth.
Overinnovation is the idea of too much change in the daily lives of individuals; this is a general fallacy because people generally modify their lives enough to continue doing what they usually do.
The fallacy of underdifferentiation is the tendency to view “the less developed countries” as more alike than they are. This is ignoring cultural diversity and treating individuals in different cultures in generally the same way.
hegemony is a stratified social order in which subordinates comply with domination by internalizing values and accepting its “naturalness” of domination.
culture of consumption
The transitional force of culture of consumption is finance. Countries today are looking beyond their borders to invest in other countries and many countries depend on labor that resides in another place or they come from another place in order to work. Culture of consumption is driven by flows of people, technology, finance, information, and ideology.

⬢ A cultural consumption is a society that has a belief system that is ordered to increasing consumption per capita over time
Image of Limited Good
There isn’t enough to go around for everyone to have everything.

The only way to get ahead was to acquire more land and the only way to do that is to get it from someone else.

Peasants view the acquisition of wealth as a negative thing, antisocial by limiting the wealth of others
Cargo System
Fiestas during certain times of the year for religious purposes

huge financial strain

those financially better off sponsor the festival
Future Shock
the idea presented by Toffler in his book that there is too much change in such a short amount of time that we cannot keep up

Generation Gap
The difference between two generations of a technological age in which the younger generation understands new technology better than the older generation.
Cowboy Economy
There is always a new frontier and way in which to produce more wealth than before.
Spaceman Economy
o If the earth is like a spaceship, our burning of fossil fuels is like smoking big cigars in the shuttle, then we are damaging the atmosphere.

There is only so much we can explore and so much we can invent.

We cannot overpopulate
levelling mechanism
a societal obligation compelling a family to redistribute goods so that non one accumulates more wealth than another.

cargo system, evil eye and witch craft and treasure tales

Acculturation is the modification of the culture of a group or individual as a result of contact with a different culture.
mainly farmers and working to produce their own food

generally the poorer in social status

use little technology

based on labor intensive work

culturally traditional subsistence oriented villagers

peasant cultures (according to foster) tend to be organized around an image of limited good, discourage the acquistion of wealth
19th century Social Philosophy

the possibility of progreee as a result of applying science to the solving of human problems
Synthetic Culture
Based on advertising and consumer goods

It develops when the amount and rates of change force people or a community to give up tradition in favor of inventing their life, ways, and customs as they go along.

A culture that is consciously made up as it goes along
Cargo Cult
religious cults that develop in response to colonialism in the islands of Melanesis believeing that the wealth of european colonials can be obtained through magic
takes place whenever the culture of two peopples are blended, especially when a local religion adopts selective beliefs and practices from a religion of a more powerful colonizer
species arose from others through a long and gradual process of transformation (descent with modification)
Natural Selection
the process by which nature selects forms most fit to survive and reproduce


Based on surplus population, variability in inherited characteristics, competition
Descent with Modification
changes in gene frequency related to adaptation
Darwinian Fitness
a measure of how good we are at surviving and reproducing
Taung Child
Dart found in 1927

1/2 of a child's enocradnial cast

deciduous teeth

centered framen magnum

Australopithecus africanus
(2-2.5 mya)



(3.4-3.2 mya)

Almost the whole fossil

skull fragmented

female, modern human pelvis, 4.5ft tall, fully erect

shortened leg bones (same length as arms)

front teeth, apelike

single cusp like apes

most apelike of all hominids

Australopithecus Afarensis
ER 1470
Mauve Leakey

East Rudolph

700 cubic centimeter brain

refuted single species hypothesis, robustus did not lead to homo genus

Called homo habillis until 90's when it changed to rudolfensis

1.8 mya
Charles Dawson 1911

gravel quarry near london

found skull fragments and jaw fragments (inconclusive to match)

no chin

brain capacity within human range
thickness of bone similar to humans (both abnormal for homo erectus)

Eoanthropus dawsonii

1950's revealed as a HOAX
1890's Java Island

Eugene Dubois

inconclusive brain to femur connection

found skull cap with 2x thick bone

900cc brain capacity

developed body, primitive head

part of homo erectus now
Missing Link
according to Darwin, it was in Africa

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