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Classroom Assessment


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Judging the worth of a programmme.
Using assesssment information to support decisions on maintaining, changing or discarding instructional or programmatic practices. These strategies inform the nature and extent of learning
Collecting data
Data gathering strategies, analyses and reporting processes that provide information that can be used to determine whether or not intended outcomes are being achieved.
The process of determining, through observation or testing, an individuals traits or behaviours academic growth or a programmes characteristics and then assigning a number, rating or score to that determination
Assessment Strategies
Means throug which students are assessed, example journals and portfoilios
Standardized procedure for measuring memory and or intellegence( what students know or have learnt)
Assessment instruments
Tools used to score students work(performance) such as rubrics, mark schemes, checklists, rating scales or running records
Paper & Pencil Assessment
These are traditional assessments of multiple choice, fill in the blanks, true or false questions, these questions are restricted to paper and pencil
Alternative Assessment
Authentic Assessment
Performance Assessment
Form of testing that requires students to perform a task rather that selesct an answer from a ready made list. This requires students to show what they can do
Standard Assessment
The achievement of the specified programme competencies at the level of performance established for successful completion. Example GSAT, GNAT
Non-standard assessment
Set for a single classroom or single set of students, example teacher made test
What are the elements of the curriculum?
objectives, content, methods, assessment
Diagnostic Evaluation
A comprehensive and detail evaluation which searches for underlined causes not highlighted in summative,it evaluates students strengths and weaknessess.
Eg. Grade 3 Diagnostic Test
Formative Evaluation
An ongoing evaluation where it can alter and improve instruction while it is still going on. Example Gr 1 Readiness Inventory
Summative Evaluation
Evaluating students performances at the end of the unit or theme. It is used to judge the success of a progress at its completion
Example GSAT
Principles of fair students' assessment practices
>inform students of expectations
>absence of bias
>Student ability, age and DAP
>De-emphazise threats to penalty
Factors influencing Classroom Assessment
Competence/ Capability
Assessment Preferences
Expectations/ Goals
Ethics/ Morality/Fairness
Teaching Methods
Philosophy/ Beliefs
Time frame of assessment(unrealistic)
Validity of an assessment
Refers to the content; wether information gathered is relevant to what was or is being taught
Reliability of an assessment
Must be consistent over a period of time in measurement/scores. Socres given on a test should prove to be the same wether it is marked today or tomorrow
Characteristics of a good test and alternative assessment procedures
1. Cost
2. Should not be ambiguous
4.Balance of test items
Differentiate between specific and general objectives
Specific/ Instructional Obj- lesson plan
General Objectives- Unit Plan
What are the criteria for writing objectives?
Degree of minimum profeciency- at least 3, with 70% accurate
What are the characteristicds of a TOS?
Used in constructing an achievement test
Achievement Tests
Should only concern itself with what has been taught. Not testing punctuality, speeling or neatness unless provisions were made in the objectives of the test
What is included on a TOS?
Content of the lesson
Objectives for lesson under their taxonomic level
This guides the number of test items to be written and the scores to be alloted to each
Objective Type Tests
Wide cross section of content coverage
Restricitve learner control
Reliability level is high
Hard to construct
Easy to score
Subjective Type Tests
Limited Content coverage
Non-restricitve learner control
Low reliability level
Easy to construct
Hard to score
Criterion Referenced Test
Measure precisely where an individual stands in relation to a certain domain of knowledge defined by objectives. It is set against a rubric and a predetermined mark scheme of A B C D E
Group Referenced Test
Individuals' scores are compared with those in the group, eg class group and scores A B C D E are determined based on the performance of the particular group, therefore the highest mark whatever that maybe gets an A
Characteristics of Traditional Assessment
Alternate Responses-T or F, yes or no
Completion/ Fill in the blank
Multiple Choice
Essay Items
An examination is the most comprehensive form of testing, typically given at the end of the term (as a final) and one or two times during the semester (as midterms).
A test is more limited in scope, focusing on particular aspects of the course material. A course might have three or four tests.
A quiz is even more limited and usually is administered in fifteen minutes or less.
Traditional Assessment: Characteristics
Select a responce
Contrived(forced to answer the ques. a particular way)
Indirect Evidence of learning ( ans. could have been a good guess-no working out)
Authentic Assessment:
Performing a task (demonstration)
Real life
Direct Evidence that something has been learnt
Name 3 selection type test items
multiple choice
true and false
Name 2 supply type test items
short answers
What are selection type test items. List advantages and disadv.
These are objective in scoring. The persons answering the questions chooses the answer from the question paper. ABCD.
adv- easy to mark and score
students grades should be the same no matter who marks the test
disadv-time consuming to construct for teacher
What are supply type test items. List advantages and disadv.
These are subjective with regards to scoring. The persons answering these questions supplies the answers. Adv- students can construct their own answers
Disadv-time consuming to mark
Various things influence the grades the teacher gives; mood feeling; tiredness
Guidelines for true and false questions
Do not use and or but
Make the statement positive
use short statements
What are restricted essays?
One in which the examinee is clearly directed to deal briefly with one specific area. Eg Characteristics of play
What are extended essays?
These are essays where the form of the item provides an overall framework but which allows him considerable latitude in the choice of points he makes and the overall organisation and presentation of his answer Eg. Write about play
What are the principles governing multiple choice items?
Stem should stand clear
The distractors should be plausible otherwise students who do not know the correct answer will spot it
Distractors should be correct just not applicable to the ques. in hand
Stem should avoid gramatical clues ( a or an)
Avoid negatives in the stem as this causes confusion
Holistic Scoring
This involves the assignment of a single score to a piece of writing on the basis of an overall impression of it. Individual features such as grammar, spelling and organization are not considered seperate entities
Analytic Scoring
This requires a seperate score for each of a number of aspects of a task such as grammatical accuracy, vocabulary, idiomatic expression, organisation, relevance and coherence
What is item difficulty?
A test should not be so easy that everyone scores 100% or should it be difficult that everyone gets zero. Most items should be at a level where at least 50% of the students pass. Tests should challenge not defeat.
How do you calculate item difficulty?
(RU + RL)/ N x 100
What is item discrimination?
A test should discriminate between good and poor students. If the same proportion of good and poor students answer an item correctly or incorrectly then it seems that the item is too easy or ambiguous
How do you calculate the discrimination power?
(RU-RL)divided by 1/2 N
What is efficiency?
The number of items students are expected to answer in alloted time, balanced against the number of items necessry to test adequately the objectives of the test.
What is fairness?
Equal opporunties to all students
Time frame must be achievable
All children must be exposed to the same content

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