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pscyh chp 8


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intelligence is... - 3
application of cognitive skills and knowledge to learn, solve prbms, and obtain ends that are valued

1) expressed in diff domains

2) intelligence is functional ex: athletic intelligence

3) defined by culture
inter-individual differences
diff between groups

ex: gender, race, age
intra-individual diff - 3
diff w/in an individual

1) development

2) diff w/in a profile ex: personality test vs. math test

3) pre vs. post training
mental ability tests - 3
measure/describe a person's mental ability or intellectual potential

test that measure a student's collective knowledge ex: SATs

measures a person's capability to learn certain things

goal is to predict future learning potential
measure knowledge and skill in academic subj areas ex: math, spelling, reading

ex: BAR exam for lawyers
pscyhological test that measure general intellectual functioning

ex: Wechsler, stanford-binet
standardized - good test
process of establishing rules for administering a test and interpreting scores

ex: preparing a class for questions in a relaxing way vs. anxiety provoking way
objective of making a good test
when every observer of a behavior arrives at same conclusion
norms - 3
description of how various scores occur

1) info about where a test score ranks in relation to other scores ex: what does a score of 18 on a depression scale mean?

2) percentile scores - percent of ppl at or below the score you have got

3) standarized group - the sample of people that the norms are based on - 2000 to 6000 ppl
pscyhometric instruments
tests that quantify pscyhological attributes such as personality traits or intellectual abilities
intelligence test
measures a peron's cognitive capabilities relative to others
sir francis galton
first to systematically measure intelligence and devise correlation coefficient

1) intelligence was a product of evolutionary process - survival of the fittest - intelligence runs in family

2) made a simple test such as reaction times to examine

3) simple measures of intelligence did not correlate w/ class
binet-simon test
devised a test to measure intellectual development in children

goal was to differentiate between children who
1) would benefit from traditional methods of leaning
2)would need extra help
3)were un-educable
binet thought of intelligence as...
a general cognitive capacity instead of acquired knowledge

devised mental age concept
intelligence quotient - a score meant to quantify intellectual functioning to allow comparison among ppl


MA=mental age
CA=chronological age
IQ scores
< 70 = mental retardation

100 = mean

> 100 = genius
problems w/ stanford-binet test
linguistic and cultural biases toward native born english speakers
wechsler adult intelligence scale
1st to devise IQ in adults

gave more emphasis to nonverbal reasoning - yielding verbal and performance IQ parts

devised downward extensions of his scale for children

credited w/
1) adult IQ test - WAIS III
2) child IQ test - WISC III
mental retardation
significantly below avg. w/ deficits in adaptive function that appear in childhood / often appear in more than one realm

failure to display the skills needed for daily living, communication

causes: genetic - down syndrome / envirmental issues - damage during birth
2-3% of population

Terman did a test on 1500 kids w/scores > 130
moderately gifted = fine
profoundly gifted = social and emotial problems

giftedness does not equal eminence

drudge theory - eminent ppl work harder and are more determined

confound - those w/innate talent exert more energy
measurement issues - 3
1) reliability

2) correlation coefficient

3) validity - not a fixed process
validity of IQ tests
1) exceptionally reliable

2) things that might affect performance - sleep, illness

3) qualified validity - indicators of academic/verbal intelligence
IQ test can predict...
future of success and occupation attainment but not performance
identifies groups of items that correlate highly w/ one another to discover underlying skills/abilities
factor analysis
statistical analysis for identifying common elements / factors are named based on how the correlations pan out
info processing
attempts to understand the process that underlies intelligent behavior - as a process rather than a measurable quantity
multiple intelligences
intelligence is a function of multiple systems
Spearman's psychometric approach - 3
1) attempted to measure individual diff in behaviors and abilities

2) measured how well ppl performed on a diverse selection of tests

3) level of performance on one task was positively correlated w/ level of another task
two factor theory of intelligence - 2 (s & g)
1) g - general ability - that which underlies all cognitive abilities / mental energy

2) s - specific abilities unique to certain tests or shared by only a subset of tests
what does "g" represent? - 2
the tasks that spearman used could correlate well b/c they were influenced by a unitary process

the tasks depend on same phsyical factor ex: same neurons
Thurston's theory of intelligence - 7
said there is no "g"

1) word fluency

2) comprehension

3) numerical computation

4) spatial skills

5) associative memory

6) reasoning

7) preceptual speed
Raymond Cattell
modified Spearman's pscyhodynamic model
Gf-Gc theory
two intelligence factors - fluid and crystallized
fluid intelligence
used in processing info and apporaching novel problems / working memory / speed of processing / reaction time / mental engine that allows you to learn new things / declines w/age
cyrstallized intelligence
ppl's store of knowledge / specific knowledge gained as a result of applying fluid intelligence / total sum of knowledge through experience / increases w/age
theory of multiple intelligences - howard gardner
multiple intelligences are unrelated

brain damage would alter one ability but not others

viewed intelligence as a set of abilities used to solve prblms that are of consequence in a particular cultural setting

ppl who excel in one area lack in others
Gardner's 7 intelligences
1) musical

2) bodily/kinesthetic

3) spatial

4) verbal/linguisitic

5) logical/mathematical

6) intrapersonal - self control and self understanding

7) social
savant syndrome
ppl who are overall below avg on intelligence scales but score really high on one intelligence
information processing approach to intelligence
focuses on processes involved in intelligent behavior, not test scores but products of intelligence

relates basic mental processes to intelligence

intelligence is more attential resources / bigger working memory (STM)
speed of processing
strong correlation w/IQ tests
knowledge base
info stored in LTM / ppl w/strong knowledge base are better equipped to perform a mental task
enviormental role in intelligence
adoption studies show that enviorment contributes to intelligence
cumulative deprivation hypotheses
children brought up in deprived enviorments will experience a decline in IQ score
the flynn effect
trend for IQ scores increase from generation to generation b/c better living conditions, more ppl being educated , medical care better, nutrional factors
reaction range
refers to genetically determined limits on IQ - determined by the enviroment
heritability of IQ
twin studies - reared together - 74% prediciability / reared apart - 54% predictability

adoption studies - compared IQ scores of adopted children w/real family and fake family - results suggest heavy influence of genes
validity issues for IQ tests - 2
1) minimal theoretical basis

2) culutral bias ex: immigrants from euro were deemed defective b/c they had poor test scores / tests administered in eng to noneng speakers
misconceptions about intelligence - 4
1) only measure innate intelligence (don't forget about verbal/crystallized)

2) IQ's never change (some abilities increase w/age while other's decrease)

3) intelligence tests provide perfectly reliable scores (only esitmates)

4) traditional tests measured all we needed to know (omitted certain traits such as creativity, pratcial, musical intelligence)

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