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Western Civ Final: Terms

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Terms

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Monophony
When one or more parts are together and on the same note
Troubadours
Noble Poet-composers and performers of court songs
Sfumato
Smoky, a blending of colors with low contrast
Apse
Semi-circular area beyond the altar
Drone
A single two-note chord running continuously
Simony
Buying church office
Estampies
One line pieces in triple meter where similar musical phrases are repeated many times in varied forms
Capital
The top of a column
Motet
A sacred vocal composition
Organum
A Traditional plainchant with another melody in counterpoint being sung simultaneously
Chiaroscuro
The use of light and dark, shadows
Recitative
Half music, half speech, used in opera
Sequence
A series of short notes sung twice with some variation (A A' B B' C C'...)
Iconography
The study of subject matter or symbolism in a piece
Pyramidal Composition
When the focuses of the piece form an equilaterlal triangle
Tympanum
The space above an entryway, often sculpted in relief
Ground Bass
A bass with a small, repeating motif
Patronage
Who paid for the piece
Plainchant (Gregorian Chant)
Unaccompanied, monophonic music for voice
Strophic
Different words but the same general melody
Medium
What materials are used in the piece
Composition
How forms are placed; the layout
Homophony
When two or more parts move together in harmony
Arioso
A miniature sung solo
Putti
Cherubs; Baby Angels
Polyphony
When two or more parts are distinct and independent
Cadence
The end of a musical phrase, marked by a pause (i.e. a period)
Aria
A sung solo
Relief
A statue partially raised from a flat plane
Orthogonals
Lines in scientific perspective that meet at one vanishing point
Contrapossto
A natural position (unsymmetrical, dispersed weight)
Pediment
A tympanum-like space on a greek temple
Entasis
The bulge half way up a greek column that makes it appear straight
Basso Continuo
A part played by a harpsichord or organ that doubles the bass part already
Rustication
When the bricks themselves show through
Nave
Center isle of a church
Reciting Tone
The Pitch on which the text is sung with the exception of small variations at the beginnings and ends of phrases
Octave
An 8 note interval
Isorhythmic
When a piece has the same rhythm throughout
Sculpture in the round
A sculpture meant to be viewed from all angles except below the base
Forced Chiaroscuro
A high amount of contrast bringing the audience's eye to the most important part of the piece
Nepotism
Putting relatives in positions of church power
Hocket
A single melody is shared between two voices such that alternately one voice sounds while the other rests
Humanism
Putting the emphasis on the individual, the body, and classical references
Madrigal
The main secular vocal genre of the Renaissance
Metope
The space in between small reliefs in a Doric building
Grisaille
"Painted Architecture"
Tuscan Order Column
A Roman version of an ionic column
Disguised Symbolism
When aspects of art hold hidden meanings (Common in the Northern Renaissance.)
Antiphon
A musical genre where the piece is a response to a traditional plainchant piece.

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