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Culture and Values 3-6

Terms

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Chorus
The collective body that interacts with the individual actors in a Greek tragedy (e.g., the People of Thebes)
Torah
Hebrew word meaning "instruction" or "law." Also the name of the First five nooks of the Old Testament: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy
Sanskrit
Language spoken by the Aryans
Forum
Originally any open space available for public use. The Forum Romanum (Roman Forum), at the foot of the Capitoline and Palatine Hills, became the center of Roman political, economic, social, and religious life for more than a thousand years.
Ecclesia
The Athenian Assembly
Tribune
Representative of the plebeians, who could intervene with state officials on their behalf
Patricians
The Roman upper classes
Modes
The scales that formed the basis of the Greek system of music
Satyr Play
The lighthearted play that followed the tragic trilogy of plays in performance at the Festival of Dionysus at Athens
Fourth
A musical interval used to build up the Greek modes
Deuterocanonical
The books accepted in the Jewish translation of the bible into Greek known as the Septuagint
Toga
Civil dress of male Roman citizens, made of a single piece of material draped to cover the whole person except for the head and the right arm
Cantor
One who leads singing in synagogue or church services
Dome
Circular vault made up of a series of arches intersecting each other around a central axis
Caryatids
Female statues used instead of columns to support a roof, as on the South Porch of the Erechtheum
Trilogy
A series of three tragic plays, either related or on seperate themes, performed at the Athenian Festival of Dionysus
Hamartia
The characcter flaw in otherwise noble people that causes their tragic fate
Tuba
Long bronze trumpet used on public occasions and in battle
Messiah
See Christ above
Septuagint
Greek translation of the Old Testament made two centuries before Common Era
Gandharan
Indian Buddhist sculpture influenced by the Greek models
Boule
The directing council of the Athenian Assembly
Tetrachord
A unit of four musical notes. A combination of two tetrachords, eight consecutive notes, formed a mode
Ahimsa
The Buddhist teaching of nonviolence
Hinayana
One of the two main strains of Chinese Buddhism, more ascetic than the other, Mahayana
Puja
An act of prayer in the home, generally in front of a small alter
Ara Pacis
The Altar of Peace, chief monument of Augustan sculpture
Brahman
According to Hindu belief, the underlying reality of the world
Caste system
Hindu system of organizing class distinctions
Bhakti
Act of devotion to a god or the gods in general
Entasis
The process whereby a Doric column is thickest at the point one-third from the base and then tapers to the top
Prophet
One who speaks authoritatively for another (God)
Avatar
Descent of Hindu deity to earth; incarnation
Catharsis
According to Aristotle, the "cleansing of the soul" experienced by a person who has undergone a tragic series of events
Outcasts
The lowest category of the caste system: the so-called untouchables
Karma
For Buddhists, their destiny as determined by their actions
Tao
(The way) The central teaching of Taoism, whose followers aimed to follow their own "way" or nature
Epicureanism
A philosophy originally Greek, holding that the correct goal and principle of human actions should be pleasure
Oculus
Regular Latin word for "eye." Technically used to describe the empty round hole at the top of the dome of the Pantheon
Testament
Another word for covenant (see above)
Exodus
Literally "a going out." Term used for the Isrealites going out of Egypt and the name of the biblical book which describes that going out
Bodhisattive
A Buddhist saint
Christ
Anointed One-Greek (from Hebrew messiah) meaning "anointed"
Sangha
A Buddhist monastery
Stupa
A large Buddhist shrine, often in the form of a tower or mound
Plebeians
The Roman lower classes
Gospel
"Good News"-the Anglo-Saxon word that means both Christian Preaching and the four books named in the New Testament
Aryans
A people who invaded India c. 1500 B.C.E.
Parthenos
Literally "virgin." The attributes of Athena used to name her temple, the Parthenon
Nirvana
The extinction of individual suffering and absorption into the Buddhist supreme spirit
Barrel vault
A series of arches forming a tunnel (or "barrel")
Harmony
Used by the Greeks to describe certain musical scales; in modern usage, the sounding together of various chords
Sophists
Traveling professional "philosophers" who taught their pupils, among other things, how to win arguments and debates
Canon
Authoritative list of books accepted in the bible
Atman
The personal manifestation, within each individual, of Brahman
Ius Civile
Rome's Code of Civil Law, first organized under Julius Caesar
Stoicism
A philosophy, originally Greek, which believed that the world is governed by Reason, and that Divine Province watched over the virtuous
Mahayana
The other main strain of Chinese Buddhism, more worldly (and therefore more acceptable to Confucians) than Hinayana
Catacomb
An underground cemetery

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