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AP European


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What is individualism?
A new concept of humankind developed through art and literature; a sense of human power that replaced religious awe
Define secularism
A belief that life was more than a prearation for the hereafter; first appeared in the modern world
Define Humanism
A literary movement that was truly modern in that a class of nonclerical writers concerned themselves with secular issues
What is the difference between Humanists and Christian Humanists?
Humanists concerned themselves with secular issues and had a special affinity with classical Greek and roman culture. CH tried to recapture the moral force of christianity by studying greek and hebrew texts
Name some humanists
H- Boccaccio (Decameron), Bruni, Baldassare Castiglione (The book of the courtier), Niccolo Machiaveli (The Prince)
name some christian humanists
Erasmus, Thomas More (Utopia)
Who wrote Decameron?
Who wrote The Book of the Courtier?
Baldassare Castiglione
Who wrote The Prince?
Niccolo Machiaveli
Who wrote Utopia?
Thomas More
Where had the trade centers of the Roman Empire been?
Northern Italian towns
Why were the italian city-states considered to be the "middlemen of Europe"
Because they took advantage of ther proximity to the sea and established trade with the peoples in the East Mediterranean
Which city-state is considered the cultural center of the Italian Renaissance?
Republic of Florence
Who controlled the gov't of the city states?
The powerful middle class of merchants and bankers
Who was Giovanni De'Medici?
Merchant and banker of Florence, ignored church's progibitions of lending for interest to provide the necessary funds for a changing world economy.
Who was Cosimo De'Medici?
Son of Giovanni, used family fortune to fill vacuum of power created by the lack of a national monarchy
Who was Lorenzo the Magnificent?
Cosimo's Grandson, republic's ruler and lavish patron of the arts
Which city-state did the Medici family rule?
Grad Duchy of Tuscany (of which Florence was the principal city)
Define "Virtu"
literally, "the quality of being a man" = what was expected among agressive males who tried to be "ranaissance men" (or "all around" men)
Art in the middle ages- Purpose? Patrons? Typical Style?
Purpose was to anonymously fill churches and cathedrals. church was greatest patron. style was figures of saints that lacked the proportions and animation of real forms or faces. were not anatomically proportional.
How did the patrons of the arts shift from the middle ages to renaissance times?
In the middle ages, the church was the greatest patron of the arts. in the renaissance, gov'ts of city states supported artists
What defined art in the middle ages?
Painters and sculptors anonymously filled churches and cathedrals with figures of saints that lacked correct proportions and animation of real human forms or faces
Who was Flippo Brunelleschi?
renaissance Architect, studied ancient Roman buildings and used their principles of design to build cathedrals
Who was Leon Battista Alberti?
renaissance Architect, studied ancient Roman buildings and used their principles of design to build cathedrals
How was sculpture defined in renaissance times?
freestanding, not designed to fit in niches of churches and showed nude subjects in greek tradition
Who was Lorenzo Ghiberti?
renaissance-sculpted a set of bronze doors for the Florentine baptistry- human crowds that had ILLUSION OF DEPTH
Who was Giotto?
renaissance Painter painted on walls in Florentine buildings and created ILLUSIONS OF DEPTH and MOVEMENT
Who was Massaccio?
renaissance painter, used LIGHT ND SHADOW, painted nude figures, ILLUSION OF PERSPECTIVE
Who was Sandro Botticelli?
renaissance painter, painted themes from classical mythology
Who was Raphael?
renaissance painter, his portraits and Madonnas epitomize renaissance style
Who was Leonardo Da Vinci?
personification of the "renaissance man" Mona Lisa, Last Supper
Who was Michelangelo Buonarroti?
primarily a sculptor, Pieta, Moses and David- all masterpieces that reflect religiosity and real human emotion. Glorified God by depicting the beauty of his earthly creations
What languge was the first European vernacular literature written in?
Italian (rather than latin, which is what language was used to write in the middle ages)
Who wrote in the middle ages?
the clergy; monks who copied ancient manuscripts by hand
Who is considered to be the "first modern writer"
Petrarch- used writing to consider the bb and flow of his life and the human condition itself
How did the northern renaissance differ from the italian renaissance?
primarily because it emphasized religion- drew upon the Hebrew and Greek texts of the bible and the writings of the church fathers
Who invented the first movable-type printing press?
Who upset the time-honored geocentric view and offered proof of a heliocentric system?
What is mysticism?
The belief that an individual alone, unaided by the church or sacraments, could commune with God
Who wrote Imitation of Christ?
Thomas a Kempis
What do Meister Eckhart and Thomas a Kempis have in common?
they were both mystics
Who was Gerard Groote and what movement did he start?
Dutch lay preacher, organized the Brothers of the Common Life (stressed personal virtues of christianity rather than the doctrine). It's movement of MODERN DEVOTION preached christ-like love, tolerance and humility
Who was Erasmus?
"Christian Centlemen" who personified Christian Humanism. Wrote The Praise of Folly and Handbook of a Christian Knight, wrote new greek and latin editions of the bible.
The renaissance in England coincided with the reign of what English Queen?
Elizabeth I
What writer typically defines the Elizabethan Age
William Shakespeare
Why was Thomas More beheaded by Henry VIII?
not supporting the king against the pope during the english reformation
What was the effect of the 100 years war on the monarchy in france? on the middle class? on nobility?
monarchy was strengthened. middle class expanded by a renewal of commerce. nobility weakened by century of warfare.
What was the most influential was for the middle class to be brought into the government in france in the 15th and 16th century?
as advisors
How did King Francis I (1515-1553) strengthen the french monarchy?
by extending its power by establishing a taille (a direct head tax on all land and property)
Who was Rabelais?
16th century priest and classicist who attacked the failings of french society and the church in his Gargantua and Pantagruel while advocation rational reform
Why didn't Spain go through a Renaissance like other European countries?
Xenophobia (due to the Moslems (aka Moors)) and catholic rigidity
Who was kicked out of Spain in 1492? Who kicked them out?
Jews and Moslems. Aragon and Castille.
What was the purpose of Miguel de Cervantes' Don Quixote?
satirized Spanish Society's anachronistic glorification of chivalry and medieval institutions
When was the "Golden Age" of Spanish culture?
the century from 1550 to 1650
What is simony?
sale of church offices
what is nepotism?
giving official positions to relative, close friend
name 4 major corruptions of the Roman Catholic Church during the renaissance
sale of church offices, nepotism, sale of indulgences, decline of morality among the clergy
How did humanism contradict the church traditions?
humanist "glorification of humanity" contradicted the church's emphasis on salvation
What was the Babylonian Captivity?
14th century, when popes, subservient to the french king, took up residence in Avignon and lost prestige in the rest of Christendom.
What was the Great Schism?
beginning in 1378, when french and anti-french cardinals elected two popes, one who lived in rome the other living in avignon.
How was papal involvement in secular politics during renaissance times viewed?
with contempt, declined the prestige of the papacy
What did most renaissance religious reforms desire?
personal communication with god, less importance of sacraments, less influence of clergy
What invention spread the bible to the commons?
the printing press
Who was Johann Tetzel?
wandering friar, authorized by Pope Leo X to sell indulgences.
Who was Martin Luther?
Roman Catholic priest, condemned sale of indulgences, nailed 95 theses to the door of the Wittenburg church listing the points of his opposition to the indulgences and inviting debate
Name some major tenets of Lutheranism
Salvation by faith alone, the bible is the ultimate authority, the grace of god brings absolution, baptism and communion are the only valid sacraments, the clergy is not superior to the laity, the church should be subordinate to the state
What are the two valid sacraments, according to Martin Luther
baptism and communion
what is transubstantation? consubstantation?
trans- the belief that while the bread and wine of the mass maintain their appearance, they are transformed into the body and blood of christ. cons- the doctrine that the transformation of the bread and wine was not literal but that god was somehow actually present in more than a symbolic way.
what is a papal bull
an official proclamation that demands recantation
How did Frederick the Wise affect Luther?
Charles V wanted to arrest Luther and supress Lutheranism, but charles honored a political debt to frederick and then refused to outlaw luther without a hearing
What was the Diet of Worms?
a tribunal of the holy roman empire with the power to outlaw, the power to condemn to be burned at the stake
What was the end result of the Diet of Worms?
the empire outlawed him
What was Charles V preoccupied with that made it harder for him to supress the growth of luteranism and protestantism?
wars against the Ottoman Turks and the French
Who was Franz Von Sickengen?
led a league of Lutheran Knights to attack the catholic princes of the Rhineland. his "army" was surpressed, but it encourages most of the n.german princes to convert.
What was the main desire of the german peasants in the Peasant's War?
the abolition of manoralism
What was the result of the Diet of Speyer?
Refused to recognize the right of the german princes to determine the religion of their subjects
What was the League of Schmalkalden?
formed by newly protestant princes to defend themselves against the emperor, charles V. Charles V wanted to call a church coincil that could compromise with the luterans and regain their allegiance to the roman catholic church, the pope said no
Who was Huldreich Zwingli?
Switzerland- established protestantism in switzerland, was killed in a nationwide religious civil war.
What was the Peace of Cappel?
Allowed each swiss canton to determine its own religion
What was the Act of Supremacy?
In england, made henry VII and his successors the heads of the anglican church and its clergy.
wh was Thomas Cranmer
who Henty appointes as the archbishop of canterbury in 1533, granted henry a divorce from Catherine of Aragon
Who was John Calvin?
switzerland- published his institutes of the christain religion.
What is predestination?
Calvin's argument (from St. Augustine's idea) that since God knows even before birth whether a person is saved or damned, there is nothing anyone can do to win salvation
According to Calvin, who are The Elect, or Saints
the select few saved only by God's love from corrypt humanity, given indications of their status by conversion or by material prosperity
What is Conversion, according to Calvin
a mystical encounter with God
What is the Puritan Ethic (or Protestant Ethic)
an incentive to avoid poverty as a sign of damnation, and served to justify the rise of capitalism
How did Calvin establish church government?
Calvin replaced the catholic hierarchy with a democratic system whereby each individual congregation elected its minister and governed its policies. argued that religion should be moral force of affairs of secular government
What is theocracy?
the idea that religion should be the moral force of affairs in the secular government. later, used as gov't in Mass. Bay Colony
What were the Statue os the Six Articles? Hint: after Act of Supremacy
In England, what parliament approved. states that the 7 sacraments were upheld, catholic theology was maintained and the authority of the monarch replaced the authority of the pope
Who were the presbyterians? Hugenots? Puritans?
presbyterians- scottish calvinists
Hugenots-french calvinists
Puritans- english calvinists
Who was Ignatius Loyola?
Established Jesuits (Society of Jesus)
Who were the Jesuits?
A Holy order that was organized in military fashion. They swore to suppress protestantism and served as advisors to catholic kings. They were the militant arm of the catholic and counter reformations.
What was the index of prohibited books?
was instituted in catholic countries to keep heretical reading material out of the hands of the faithful
What was the council of trent?
responded to the challenge by protestanism by defining catholic dogma. Said many things, including that salvation is by both good works and faith, celibacy of clergy was reaffirmed, etc.
What was the Peace of Augsburg?
Allowed the german princes to choose the religion of their subjects
After the peace of augsburg, what religions could the german princes choose from?
Either Lutheranism or Catholicism
What Diet did the Peace of Augsburg overrule?
The Diet of Speyer, which had said before that the german princes could NOT choose their own religion
After the Protestant Reformation, what part of europe adopted Protestantism?
Scandinavia, England, much of Germany, parts of France, Switzerland, Scotland... Northern Europe
Which of the following did the protestant spirit of individualism NOT encourage? Democracy, science, manorialism, capitalism
did NOT encourage manorialism... that means it DID encourage all the other ones, so know that...
In Lutheranism, which was subordinate to the other- church subordinate to state, or state subordinate to church?
the church was subordinate to the state
What was the first continent-wide war in modern history?
The Thirty Years' War
Where was the Thirty Years War mostly fought?
What did the German Princes want from the 30 years war? What did France want? Spain? Sweden and Denmark?
GP wanted autonomy from the HRE. France wanted to limit power of Hapsburgs. Spain wanted to extend Hapsburg power in germany. SandD hoped to strengthen their hold over the Baltic region
What religion were the Czechs (also called the Bohemians) during the 17th century?
Who was defenestrated in the Bohemian Phase of the 30 years war?
King Matthias and all his representatives
Who replaced the position of power held by King Matthias in the Bohemian phase of the 30 years war? What religion was he?
Frederick V. Calvinist
Who took Frederick V's power in the Bohemian Phase of the 30 years war?
Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand II, he became king of bohemia and with the support of spanish hapsburgs, defeated the bohemians at the Battle of White Mountain
How did the Spanish Hapsburgs help to defeat the Bohemians in the 30 years war?
They were used by HREmperor to defeat the bohemians at the battle of white mountain
Who was Christian IV of Denmark? Hint: 30 years war
Lutheran who entered the war to bolster the weakened protestant position in Germany and to annex German lands for his son
Who was Albert of Wallenstein?
commissioned by Ferdinand II to raise a mercenary army
What was the Edict of Restitution?
Restored all catholic states in Germany that had been secularized before Peace of Augsburg
Why did Ferdinand II dismiss Albert of Wallenstein?
because Wallenstein disapproved of the Edict of Restitution
Who was Cardinal Richelieu?
Roman catholic regent of France, concerned with gains made by the Hapsburg emperor in germany.
Who did Cardinal Richelieu, roman catholic regent of france, offer subsidies to in order to encourage them to enter the 30 years war?
Gustavus Adolphus, Swedish King
What was Gustavus Adolphus? what religion was he? How did he die?
Swedish king during 30 years war, Lutheran, died in battle after decisive victories over hapsburg forces were made
What was the Peace of Prague?
Revokes the Edict of Restitution, which restored all catholic states in germany that had been secularized before the peace of augsburg
What two countries allign with France in the last phase of the 30 years war?
Holland, Sweden (...and Savoy, not sure how much they count...)
What french general defeated the spanish at Rocroi and talks peace in 1644 in Westphalia in Germany?
Henri Turenne
What change was made to the Peace of Augsburg during the 1648 Peace of Westphalia?
The peace of augsburg was reinstated and Calvinism was added to the list of acceptable religions German princes could choose from (lutheran and catholic already on the list)
What was done to the Edict of Restitution at The Peace of Westphalia in 1648
it was revoked, guaranteeing the possession of former Church states to their Protestant holders
What two countries were made independent states, freed from Hapsburg dominion, at the Peace of Westphalia in 1648
Switzerland and Holland
On the eve of the renaissance, Germany was at the heart of european progress. but at the end of the 17th century, germany was devastated and its population reduced in some parts by well over a third. what major event caused this change?
the 30 years war
What effect did the Thirty Years' War have on the Hapsburgs?
the hapsburgs were weakened, the possibility of a europe united under the hapsburg family was ended. Hapsburg spain was left a second-rate power
What effect did the Thirty Years' War have on the Catholic and Counter Reformations?
Reformations were slowed, protestantism was safely established in its european strongholds
Which country first lead Europe in exploration?
gold and silver from the new world helped to shift the balance of power from where to where?
from the mediterranean basin to the atlantic coast od eurpe
What effect did the wealth from mines in the spanish colonies have on the european economy? on spain as a major power?
led to rampant inflation in europe and the decline of spain as a major power
Which 14th and 15th century war devastated france and exhausted its nobility? what effect did this war have on the strength of the monarchy?
100 years war, led to a strong monarchy
Cardinal Richelieu was prime minister to which king?
Louis XII
Which french king was nicknamed "The Sun King"
Louis XIV
Who was king during the Golden Age of France?
Louis XIV, also known as the sun king
Which country was europe's wealthiest and most populous country at the end of the 17th century?
What was the first check to the power of english kings by the nobility?
magna carta, 1215
Who was Prince Henry the Navigator?
portuguese leader who explored the South Atlantic.
What nationality were Vasco da Gama, Pedro Alvares Cabral and Bartolomeu Dias? where did they explore?
They were portuguese explorers, explored the coast of Africa and eventually established trading posts in India
Christopher Columbus
seeking a direct route to Asia for spanish crown, discovered western hemisphere and opened new world
Ferdinand Magellan
circumnavigated the globe for spain
conquered the great american empire of the aztecs
Francisco Pizarro
Conquered the great american empire of the Inca
Who was the Spanish King during their age of exploration?
Catholic King Phillip II
Who revolted against the Spanish from 1556-1587
The prosperous Low Countries, whose leaders were Calvinist
What defeat in 1588 marks the beginning of the decline of Spain's hegemony in Western Europe?
The defeat of the attempt of Philip II's armada to invade England, an ally of the Netherlands
After revolt against the spanish, what became of the Low Countries? Hint: occured mid-end 16th century
divided low countries- south was Spanish Netherlands (eventually became Belgium) and north was United Provinces of the Netherlands (eventually Holland)
Who led the muslim ottoman turks to attack Austria in 1683?
Suleiman the Magnificent
At the end of the 17th century, the Austrian Hapsburgs beat back an attack from the Muslim Ottoman Turks. What did they gain from this victory?
control of Bohemia, Hungary and Transylvania
What effect did Ivan the Terrible have on the power of russian nobles (boyars)?
Ivan limited their power
Who were the boyars?
Russian nobles
What marked the period after the death of Ivan the Terrible?
A Time of Troubles; a time marked by civil war and lack of an heir
What dynasty took over russia after the Time of Troubles?
The Romanov dynasty
What dynasty reinstituted serfdom after gaining power in 1613?
the romanov dynasty
Which russian leader is noted for establishing a powerful standing army, a civil service and an educational system to train technicians in the skills developed by western science and technology?
Peter the Great
Which russian city ereted the planned city of St. Petersburg on the Baltic and built other palaces and churches in baroque style?
Peter the Great
How is baroque style defined?
A style of architecture, art and decoration which originated in Italy during the late 16th century and spread throughout Europe. It is characterized by overscaled, bold details, sweeping curves, dramatic light and shade, turbulent composition, and exaggerated emotional expression.
Which Hohenzollern is known for solidifying autocratic rule over Brandenburg, Prussia, and the Rhine territories with a strong army, an efficient bureaucracy and a policy of weakenng the Junkers (nobles)
Frederick William
Define Taille
A direct tax on land and property
Define Annates
The first year'srevenue from Church offices
Who granted the pope the right to collect annates from the church in return for the power to nominate high officials in the french church?
Francis I and Concordat of Bologna
How did Francis I and Concordat of Bologna increase the power of the monarchy and effectiely nationalize the church in france?
By granting the pope the right to collect annates in return for the power to nominate high oficials in the French Church
Henry II actively persecuted the French Cavinists, also known as
Persecution of which group 16th and 17th century led to civil war in France?
Huguenots, french calvinists
Who halted the french civil war caused by the persecution of the huguenots?
Catherine de Medici, mother of, and regent for, Charles IX
What was the Edict of Toleration?
Halted the civil war that was caused by Francis I, Henry II, Francis II and Charlex IX's persecution of the huguenots. issued by Catherine de Medici
What was the Massacre of St. Bartholomew's Day
renewed french civil war when Catholic mobs slaughtered Huguenot leaders who had gathered in Paris to celebrate a royal wedding.
Which French leader who took power in 1589 had to make an expedient conversion to Catholicism before taking the throne?
Henry of Navarre, afterwards known as Henry IV
What edict was issued by french king Henry IV?
Edict of Nantes
What was the Edict of Nantes?
Issued by french king Henry IV, an expression of religious tolerance that guaranteed civil and religious freedom to the Huguenot minority.
Who was French King Henry IV's finance minister and why is he well known?
Duke of Sully, reformed the tax collection system to mke it more equitable and efficient, improved transportation, stimulated trade, all in all increasing power of the monarchy. Good at being a finance minister!
Which french King, who took power after the death of Henry IV, led a government of corruption and mismanagement?
Louis XII
Who was Louis XII's appointed prime minister?
Cardinal Richelieu
Who established France's Intendant system? What was it?
The intendant system, instituted by Cardinal Richelieu, set up so that bourgeois officials, answerable only to the king, supervised the provinces and diminished the power of the nobility
What and when were the Wars of the Fronde?
The frondeurs were the french nobles who sough to limit the powers of the monarch and to decentralize the government in order to extend their own influence. Reached their height from 1650 to 1652
Who were the frondeurs?
french nobles who sought power during the reign of prime minister Cardinal Mazarin
Who allied the Frondeurs during the french Wars of the Fronde?
How did Louis XIV proclaim as prime minister when Mazarin died in 1661?
Himself. "I am the State!"
Who is considered the most absolute monarch during the age of absolutism?
Louis XIV
Who provided Louis XIV with the philosophical justification for the divine right theory of rule by claiming that absolutist monarchs were placed on the throne by god?
Bishop Jacques Bossuet
Define the three estates
1st- clergy 2nd- nobility 3rd- bourgeoise, artisans, urban workers and peasants
Who reigned during the Golden Age of France?
Louis XIV
Who is considered the father of french mercantilism?
Jean Baptiste Colbert
What position of power did Jean Baptiste Colbert hold?
He served as Louis XIV's French finance minister
What did french finance minister Jean Baptiste Colbert do to internal tariffs?
He abolished them, creating a free-trade zone in MOST of france
How did Jean Baptiste Colbert stimulate industry?
He subsidized vital manufacturing and built up the military
Which country developed Europe's first modern army?
France; the government (instead of officers) recruited, trained and equipped troops. Artillery was usually supplied by civilian private contractors.
What was the War of Devolution? When did it occur?
1667-1668; France's unsuccessful attempt to seize the Spanish NEtherlands as part of feudal claim.
What was the Invasion of the Dutch Rhineland? When did it occur?
1672-1678; Revenge for dutch role in defeating france in the war of devolution, an attempt to seek france's "natural boundary in the west"- the rhine river. largely unsuccessful.
What was the Seizure of Luxembourg and attempt to annex Alsace-Lorraine? When did it occur?
1681-1697; Although france retained luxembourg, most of louis's ambitions were frustrated by the League of Augsburg
What was the League of Augsburg?
An alliance of Holland, Spain, the HRE and England
What was the War of the Spanish Succession?
Louis threatened to upset the balance of power in europe by laying claim to the spanish thrown for his grandson. The Grand Alliance fought to prevent this union of french and spanish thrones.
what was the chief purpose of the Grand Alliance in europe in the early 18th century?
Preserve the balance of power in europe (prevent french expansion)
What was the treaty of utrecht?
Restored the balance of power by allowing Philip V, Louis XIV's grandson, to remain on the spanish throne as long as france and spain were never ruled by the same monarch.
What was the "universal tounge" in the early 18th century?
French, spoken by diplomats in the royal courts of europe
What was Jansenism?
A form of catholic calvanism, oulawed in France by Louis XIV
Who revoked the Edict of Nantes?
Louis XIV
Who was the first Tudor? When did he take power?
Henry VII. took power in early 16th century.
What was the war of roses?
In the late 1400's the House of York fought the House of Lancaster for the English crown. Because Lancaster's heraldic badge was a red rose and York's was a white rose, the long conflict came to be known as the Wars of the Roses (1455 - 85). The wars started when the nobles of York rose against Henry VI of Lancaster who was a feeble ruler. Edward IV, of York, replaced Henry as king. Later, Henry again became king, but lost his crown once more to Edward after the battle of Tewkesbury in 1471. The Yorkists held power until Richard III lost his throne to the Lancastrian Henry Tudor. Henry Tudor married into the House of York. This personal union ended the conflict, and a new famous dynasty, the Tudors, emerged.
What was The Court of the Star Chamber?
in england, administered central justice and further subdued rebellious nobles in the time of Henry VII
Why were the Tudors particularly dependent on parliament?
they were beholden to parliament for inviting them to the throne after the War of Roses
Why couldn't Edward VI take full control of the English gov't? Who ran it in his place?
Edward VI (only son of Henry VIII) was 10 and of fragile health, the Duke of Somerset ran the gov't as his regent.
Why was the Duke of Somerset ousted in 1550?
Because, as a devout Calvinist, he imposed his religion on the people.
Why was Mary Tudor so unpopular?
She was Roman Catholic and married to Philip II of Spain. She earned her nickname Bloody Mary by burning hundreds of protestants at the stake for dissenting against her attempt to reinstitute Catholicism in England.
Who was the last Tudor?
Elizabeth I
Who reinstated the English Acts of Supremacy and Uniformity in the late 16th century?
Elizabeth I
What were the Thirty-Nine Articles?
followed protestant doctrine but were vague enough to accomodate most of the English (except Puritans); The basic summary of belief of the Church of England
Why did Elizabeth order the execution of Mary Stuart for treason
Mary was conspring with Phillip II (Spanish King, HRE, was married to Mary Tudor) to get Elizabeth off throne and mary on.
Who was the first Stuart?
James I; king of scotland and son of mary queen of scots
Who took throne after the death of Elizabeth I?
James I
Who led The Gunpowder Plot against James I in 1605?
Guy Fawkes
What did the Gunpowder Plot object to?
James I enforcement of laws that required participation in Anglican Servies
What did The "Addled" Parliament argue in England in 1614?
That taxes could only be levied with Parliament's consent
What was the Great Protestation?
Passed by English Parliament in 1621, claimed free speech and authority in conductiong government affairs.
What act of English parliament caused James I to dissolve the parliament in 1621?
The Great Protestation
What belief did James I and his son, Charles I, have in common?
The belief and devotion the the Divine Right Theory
What was in the Petition of Right in 1628
Parliament alone can levy taxes, nartial law cannot be declared in peacetime, soldiers may not be quartered in private homes, imprisonment requires a specific charge.
The petition of right was issued during which English King's reign?
Charles I
Which war caused Charles I to sign The Petition of Rights in order to obtain funds?
The Bishops' War
What was the Bishops War over?
After Archbisop LAud persecuted Puritans and tried to force Anglican worship under the Presbyterian Scots
What did the Parliament want Charles I to do in return for their approval of paying for Charles' defeat in the Bishops War?
For him to impeach his top advisors, allow parliament to meet every 3 years without his summons, promise not to dissolve parliament without its consent.
Who were the Roundheads?
The middle class, the merchants, the major cities and a small segment of the nobility who supported parliament during the English Civil War.
Who were the Royalists, or Cavaliers?
The Anglican clergy, the majority of the nobility, and the peasants who backed the king during the English Civil War
Who allied with Presbyterian Scotland during the English Civil War, the Roundheads or the Royalists?
The Roundheads
Who was Oliver Cromwell's son?
What happened to King Richard in 1660?
He was deposed and Charles II was proclaimed king
Who were the tories?
The nobbbles, the gentry and the Anglicans- conservatives who supported the monarchy over Parliament who wanted Anglicanism to be the state religion
Who were the whigs?
Mainly middle class and puritan favored parliament and religious toleration
What was the nickname for the parliament that developed during the Tory and Whig parties?
The Cavalier Parliament
Who supported the Habeas Corpus Act, the Whigs or the Tories?
The Whig parliament
What was the Habeas Corpus Act?
Enabled judges to demand that prisoners be in court, requiring just cause for continued imprisonment, providing for speedy trials, forbidding double jeopardy
What religion was James II (1685-1688)
devout catholic
Who was William of Orange?
Invited by parliament to take english throne in 1688 to serve with James II's oldest daughter, Mary
What were the Declaration of Rights?
In England, enacted into law as the Bill of Rights, it was a list of stipulations checking the power of the king and giving power to parliament and the people.

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