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us hist ch. 26


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Who was the president when US went into WWII?
FDR (Roosevelt)
How did US get involved in WWII?
When Japan attacked Pearl Harbor December 7, 1941
As a result of WWII, how did US change?
1. Women and blacks pressed for their rightful place in society. 2. Holocaust raised awareness of the impacts of prejudice. 3. The nuclear age was ushered in 4. US rose as a world power
Washington Conference 1921
Held to deal with the problems in the Far East. One treaty signed here said that it would protect the territorial integrity of China and to respect each nation's posessions.
Five Power Pact
Signed by the US, Great Britain, Japan, France, and Italy; attempted to limit the size of fleets and new shipbulding for military purposes.
Benito Mussolini
Lead the Fascist Party. Fascist dictator of Italy who got rid of labor unions, any opposing parties, and freedom of the press. He wanted to create a Roman Empire. 1934: Invaded Ethiopia and annexed it in 1936.
Adolf Hitler
Appointed chancellor of Germany in 1933. He was the dictator who represented the ideas of the Nazi Party. He wanted to make Germany a world power and enlarged its army.
Johnson Debt-Default Act 1934
Passed by US; forbade the sale of US securities to any nation that failed to pay its war debts to the US. This created economic hardship in Germany.
Appeasement policy
When a nation attempts to maintain peace by letting the agressor get what he wants so the agressor doesn't start war. What European countries did to Germany.
Munich Conference - September 1938
Where nations discussed Hitler's actions and issues of Sudentenland. They gave in and let Hitler have Sudetendland. Known as one of the biggest mistakes in history.
Munich Pact 1938
Signed by Britain, France, Italy, and Germany: gave Sudentenland to Germany in exchange for promises of no further acts of aggression.
Germany's actions after the Munich Pact 1938:
Germany invaded Czechosovakia in March 1939
Joseph Stalin
Communist dictator of USSR
Nonaggression treaty - August 1939
Signed by Stalin and Germany. Peace between USSR and Germany. Cleared the way for Germany to pursue its aggressive policy in Europe.
How did WWII begin in Europe?
September 1939 when Germany invaded Poland (France and Britain were allies with Poland)
Francisco Franco
The fascist, pro-Nazi dictator of Spain after he won the Spanish Civil War in 1939. He sold arms and supplied men to the Germans and Italians. US and Europe took no action against him even though he supported Hitler and Mussonlini.
In June 1940, Hitler invaded _____, a move that stunned the US.
The Neutrality Acts 1935 and 1937
Forbade US citizens from selling or transporting arms munitions to, making laons to, or traveling on ships of nations at war. Also established a "cash and carry" system. Clearly favored the Allied nations.
The Neutrality Acts of 1939
Permitted the purchase of war materials from the US on a cash and carry basis (again favored Allies). Banned US merchant ships from traveling into war zones that were determined by the president.
Atlantic Charter (August 1941)
US and Great Britain agree to: 1. Both are not seeking to gain new territory as a result of WWII. 2. No territorial changes without agreement of governed people. 3. People have right to choose own form or govt. 4. Nazi must be destroyed. 5. Freedom of the
Draft of September 1941
Passed after much debate. Men 21-35 required to serve in military for a year.
The Japanese invaded ______ in 1931.
the Chinese provice of Manchuria and changed its name to Manchuko.
Stimson Doctrine of 1932
US condems Japan's seizing of Manchuria and says that this violates exisiting treaties. Imposed sanctions against the Japanese that were ignored by other countries.
US gunboat that was sunk by Japan in 1937. Japan apologized and paid US for damage.
East-Asia Co-prosperity Sphere
Japan wanted all asian nations to be under Japan control and free of western powers. It demanded China to be submissive to Japan.
War Production Board
Established during WWII to convert US's productions from peacetime to wartime.
War Food Administration
Established during WWII to handle the food suppply fo troops and civilians.
War Mapower Commission and Office of Scientific Research and Development
Established during WWII 1942 to balance labor needs of agriculture, industry, and armed forces
Office of Price Administration
Established during WWII: important agnecy that controlled prices
Revenue Act of 1942
increased the income tax during WWII. By 1944, a standard payroll deduction had been established
Smith-conolly Act 1943
Established during WWII to authorize the government to seize any plan or mine that was idled by a strike and affected the war effort. Expired in 1947
Office of War Mobilization
Established during WWII to monitor the industrial production of the nation
"Rosie the Riveter"
Nickname for women who worked in manufacturing plants that made munitions for WWII
A. Phillip Randolph
head of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters; threatened to march to Washington to demand equal opportunity for black in warm jobs and in the armed forces
Fair Employment Practices Commission
Issued by FDR; prohibited discrimination based on race
What were established during WWII that helped the blacks?
NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People) and CORE (Congress of Racial Equality)
Although Mexicans, Indians, and Blacks helped in the war effort and was treated (somewhat) fairly, _______ suffered great discrimination.
Japanese Americans. They were forced to go to Japanese internment camps
Korematsu v. The United States 1944
Supreme Court upheld the government's right to seize Japanes property and force them to internment camps because of the extraordinary times
George Marshall
General of the US Army, led US battles during WII, awarded the Nobel Peace Prize 1953 for the Marshall Plan
General Dwight D. Eisenhower
Commander of the European front
Stalingrad 1942
Single bloodiest battle in US history; Soviets defeat German army
Operation Torch
Defeat of German General Rommel's Afrika Korps in North Africa; led to Axis powers to lose control of Africa and the Mediterranean
Invasion of Normandy/D-day June 6, 1944
Biggest Allied effort against Germany. By Spetember 1944, Grance, Belgium, and other areas of Europe and free from German control.
Battle of the Bulge 1944
Germans are defeated here on the Belgian border during WII. Germans retreat
Election of 1944
FDR is elected for a fourth term but he died suddenly on April 2, 1945, so Vice President Harry S. Truman took office
V-E Day (Victory in Europe) May 8, 1945
The day before was when Nazi Germany surrendered to General Eisenhower. WWII ends.
General Douglas MacArthur
Commander of the US forces in the Pacific; oversaw occupation of Japan and made big democratic changes there; becomes governor of Phillipines
Admiral Minitz
lead the US fleet and defeated the Japanese on Solom, Gilbert, and Marshall Islands.
Manhattan Project
Very secretive operation to build the first nuclear weapon. It was successful
Hiroshima 1945
US bombs Hiroshima on August 6, 1945 and resulted in MANY casulties
The second bombing of Japan by US, the day after the bombing of Hiroshima.
In result of the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki:
Japan surrendered on August 14, 1945
This ended WWII:
The atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and Japan's surredner 1945
What war happended right after WWII ended?
The Cold War

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