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Intro to Chinese History Midterm: Son of


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********Li Shinin (Taizong)*******
626-649 CE.  "Confucian" emperor who gained the throne by "eliminating" family members.  Made the Tang a "great" dynasty.
An Lushan Rebellion
Foreign Tang general marches on weak Tang capital in 755.  Rebellion continues after death into 760s, dislocating and disrupting.
Battle of Talas
751 CE.  Muslims defeat Chinese near Central Asian R.
Decree for "equalization of land"
485 CE.  All land bleongs to emperor; distributed evenly.  Upon death, redistributed.  Insured stability through getting the agrarian economy running for taxation.
Downfall of the Mongols
Black Death, Yellow R. flood (early C14), rebellions.
Failed Mongol Invasion of Japan
1274, 1281.  Multinational navy.  Defeated by Kamikaze.
Fish-scale books
Hongwu.  Detailed land holdings for taxation.  Ideal of little agr. movement - static = stable.
Grand Canal System
From Yang Guang's reign.  Connected political north and settling south (eventually Yellow R and Yangzi R).  Recognizes shift of economic, cultural gravity of China to hospitable south.
Jin State
1115-1234.  Jurchen, ancestors of Manchu.  Conquered Qidan, some Song territory.  Sinicized culture, bur. while maintaining ID.  Song made vassals.
Khublai Khan
1260-.  Controlled China despite little knowledge of Chinese.  Used Han advisors and founded Yuan dynasty.  Finished off the Song in 1279 w/ Han help, unifying most of China.
Late Tang Features
Rebellion, tax simplification, drop in registration, distrust of the foreign, reaction against Buddhism
Law of Avoidance
Han practice institutionalized under Wendi.  Can't govern home region; prevents local power build-up.  Coupled with rotation system.  Lasts through the 20th century.
Li Yuan (Gaozu)
618-626 CE.  Founded Tang dynasty.  Military, northern background.
Li Zicheng
Captures Ming captial in 1644.  Rebelled with fellow postal workers for not getting paid - government poor, society rich. Brief dynasty overthrown by Manchus.
Liao State
947-1125.  Predate Song.  Peopled by the Qidan, who had their own language and ID.
Lijia System
Hongwu.  Local control of tax collection.  110 households under supervision of 10 wealthy families.  10 households/jia/controller.
Local histories
By elites to promote regions.  Detailed accounts of activities.  Model "chaste" women - promulgation of *norms*.
Marco Polo
"Visited" China in the 1270s.  Actual visitation questionable.  Observed Mongol policies.
Ming Dynasty
1368-1644.  Founded by Zhu Yuanzhang.  Mongol successor.  "Bright, brilliant." Considered weak, as it fell to the Manchus.  Tone** of locality, control, stability set by founder.
Ming Features
Consolidation of local gentry, local histories, model women, vibrant commerce (shizoid relation to gov't), blossoming urban culture, reality vs. gov't framework
Ming gentry
Local literati who aspired to official positions.  Not always officials, but those who succeeded often became landowners.  From Ming emphasis on local.
Mongol heirarchy
Northern Wei Dynasty
386-534 CE.  "Barbaric" state founded by the Tuoba (reconfigured Xiongnu).  Incorporated Chinese bureauccracy; divided by call for sinicization (490s) (-->"Yuan"); land redistributed.  Predecessors of Tang.
Pax Mongolica
Mongol Peace.  c. 1300.  Vast, world empire.
Song Dynasty
960-1279 CE.  Regular and Southern (1127-1279) phases.  Founded by Zhao Kuangyin.  Militarily weak, economically and populationly strong.
Song political features
Free land market, clearly defined tax system, fiscal regulation, emphasis on/expansion of *civilian* bureaucracy, decentralization, many massive urban centers due to trade, Maritime trade (weak army), monetization
Song society/culture features
Conrucian resurgence due to exams (Neo-Conf.), triumph, self-det. of (open?) exam elites "scholar gentry", "Chinese" culture,vibrant, extensive, unregulated trade, women's rights, bound feet, ideal of women in *manuals*
Song's Modern features
Massive iron production, extensive maritime trade, paper money, printing, weak military, firmer IDs, consolidation of Civil Service Exam, small state with rivals/foreign relations.  "Modern?"
Sui Dynasty
581-618 CE.  Founded by Yang Jian.  Known for continuation of Northen Wei bureacratic/land policies, canal system, and military expeditions.
Tang Characteristics
Cosmopolitanism, internationalism, solidified Civil Service exam (Daoist/Confucian), flourishing religions, Flourishing culturer (famous poets Li Bo [701-62] and Du Fu [712-770]), Confucian Legalist code.
Tang Dynasty
618-907 CE.  Related to Northern Wei.  Founded by Li Yuan.
Tax Farming
Mongol system, among others. Local elites collect taxes however they want, give set amount to government.  In exchange for power.  Shallow penetration of Chinese economy.
Temujin (Ghenghis Khan)
Supreme ruler.  c. 1155-1227.  Founded Mongol empire, united peoples.  Picked by a tribal council.  Descendants destroyed the Jin dynasty.
The Dynasties (and their Families) through the Ming
Xia, Shang, Zhou, Qin (Li/Zheng), Han (Liu), Northern Wei (Tuoba/Yuan), Sui (Yang), Tang (Li), Song (Zhao), Yuan (Mongol Khanate), Ming (Zhu)
Two-Tax System
Late Tang measure.  Taxes consolidated into two, singular installments/yr.  People pay when they're found, instead of when they're registered.  Also removes control from tax farmers.
Wang Anshi
1021-86.  Modern economic reforms encouraging farming expansion, circulating commodities, emphasizing finance, thinking of profits indicate modern, expansionist economic thought.
Western Xia State
1038-1227.  Tangut people asserted ID, defeated Song after declaring empire.  Written language.  Mixed state.  Bureaucracies, taxes, subjects.  Han civil servants.
Wu Zhao (Empress Wu)
660-705 CE.  Competent ruler condemned as woman usurper by Confucians.  First Taizong's, then his son's concubine.  Removed sons from power to ascend.  Great Buddhist.  Only woman emperor.  Declared brief Zhou Dyansty
Yang Guang (Yangdi)
Son of Wendi.  Built Grand Canal System, sent military expeditions out (including to Korea).  Condemned as too bad, wasteful.  Drained national resources and used too much manpower.
Yang Jian (Wendi)
581 CE.  Military man of mixed NW origin who conquered south China in 589.  Continued Northern Wei policies; Law of Avoidance (institutionalized Han practice).
Yellow Registers
Hongwu tracks population by profession.  Implies frozen occupations.  Mongol idea.
Yuan Dynasty/features.
1271-?.  Mongol dynasty, founded by Khublai Khan.  Buddhism, geo-ethnic social heirarchy, racist exams after Khublai, discrimination, flourishing Han theater/culture, strict social barriers/registration, tax farming
Zhao Kuangyin (Taizu)
960-976 CE.  Founded Song dynasty.  General of the Later Zhou who united China.
Zheng Chenggong (Koxinga)
Half-Jap pirate.  Resisted Manchu form multi-cultural, cosmopolitan fortress on SE coast.  Flees to Taiwan in 1659, driving out Dutch - "nationalist."  D. 1662.  Rebellion lasts a few more decades.  Father accepted Manch
Zheng Hu's Seven Expeditions
1405-1433.  Muslim Eunuch goes to India, East Africa with massive fleet.  Projected empire's awe, majesty, befuddled later Westerners by not dominating.  Brought back valuables, not goods.
Zhu Di (Yongle)
1403-1424.  Expansionist; fought remaining Mongols.  Capital--> Beijing for military control.  Grand capital, forbidden palace.  Sponsored Sheng He's expeditions for recognition, majesty.
Zhu Xi
1130-1200.  Founder of Neo-Confucianism.  Synthesized and reasserted Confucianism as part of anti-Buddhist/Daoist reaction.  Commentaries became standard exam material.
Zhu Yuanzhang (Hongwu)
1368-1398.  Founded Ming dynasty.  Name of dynasty from Manechism.  "moved China towards autocracy."  Centralized after kinship failed.  Moved capital.  Built walls. "Restored stability" and agriculture.&n

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