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Anthropology Final


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Pictoral art?
Some sort of picture: painting, drawing, sketch, or carving
Aesthetic way of approaching to study pictoral art?
focuses on how things are predicted
Narrative way of approaching to study pictoral art?
on what things are predicted
Interpretive way of approaching to study pictoral art?
- can reveal the meanings of another people’s art; requires knowledge of symbols and beliefs of the people responsible for the art
identification with an ethnic group; based on cultural similarities and differences in a society or nation
Ethnic Group?
one among several culturally distinct groups in a society or region; members share certain beliefs and values because of their common background
the view of cultural diversity in a country as something good and desirable (valuable and worth maintaining)
an ethnic group in the minority; assumed to have a biological basis (distinctively shared genes)
social identity based on ancestry
children assigned to same group as minority parent, even if the ethnicity is half and half between parents
Collecting wild foods instead of producing food; foraging for plant foods, hunting animals, and fishing
Plant cultivation using simple tools and small plots of land; relies solely on human power for production; a lot of work and complexity
Keeping domesticated animals and relying on their products for food sources; often nomadic
Agricultural Societies?
Production of food using animal or mechanical power; more intense than horticulture; using some form of irrigation; commonly used around the world
Production of food using complex machinery and technologies; most productive and intense form of food production
Cultural Ecology?
also known as ecological anthropology; is the study of how humans adapt to their environments by way of cultural mechanism
Temporary, linked to trade networks, associated with foraging
Larger settlements, a few more regulatory problems, associated with horticulturalists
Permanent, more complex community regulation, associated with agricultural societies
Population control, laws, police, military, taxes
⬢ Why are goods exchanged in non-industrialized societies?
o Not always for economical reasons, but sometimes exchange of prestige items is to strengthen social & political relationships.
Market exchange?
buying selling, and valuation based on supply and demand
principles governing exchanges among social groups; found in foraging societies
What are the three types of reciprocity?
Generalized, balanced, negative
flow of goods into center, then back out; characteristic of chiefdom
Plural Society?
a society combining ethnic contrasts, ecological specialization, and the economic interdependence of those groups (the different groups manage to work together to use the environment)
Why are goods exchanged in non-industrialized societies?
Not always for economical reasons, but sometimes exchange of prestige items is to strengthen social & political relationships.
What is a class based society?
Status can be achieved
What is a caste based society?
Status given at birth; person’s rank is unchangeable
What is the difference between sex and gender?
Sex is determined, gender is constructed
How do we measure social inequality?
Wealth, power, prestige
Gender stratification?
unequal distribution of rewards between men and women, reflecting different positions in the social hierarchy
(cross dressing) wearing clothes normally associated with the other gender--usually not connected with homosexuality
People who feel they are “trapped in the wrong body”
Nuclear families?
Husbands and wives must work out their own solutions to the problems of living together and having children.
Extended families?
Decisions are made by an older individual whose views may not coincide with those of younger family members.
mother’s brother’s children; father’s sister’s children
Parallel cousins?
mother’s sister’s children; father’s brother’s children
Unilineal descent?
People trace their ancestry through either their father’s or mother’s line (not both)
Patrilineal descent?
Male members trace descent from a common male ancestor
Matrilineal descent?
Descent traced through the female line
What is art?
Art is the creative use of the human imagination to interpret, express, and enjoy life
The study of music in specific cultural settings
Verbal art?
oral traditions: a culture’s unwritten stories, beliefs, and customs
Music art?
form of communication that includes a nonverbal component
Lineage kinship groups?
A unilineal descent group of up to 10 generations in depth
A group of kin where members believe they are related through a common ancestor, but can\'t be traced back step-by-step
Descent groups made up of two or more clans; they are rare and don\'t usually share important day-to-day functions
Societies divided into two major lineal descent groups; each half is called a moiety
What are the three nonunilineal descent groups?
Double descent, ambilineal, and bilateral
Marriage between one man and one woman; most marriages
Marriage of one man and more than one wife; 80% of cultures accept this
Marriage of one woman and more than one husband; extremely rare
Is incest taboo a human universal?
the practice of seeking a husband or wife outside one\'s own group
marriage of people from the same group
Arranged marriages?
the interests of the families are stronger than the interests of the individuals when it comes to choosing a spouse; it is believed that marriage is a union of two kin groups, rather than two individuals
Same-sex marriages?
not all recognized marriages occur between a man and a woman; in some societies, same-sex marriages are permitted, although sexual relationships are not always part of the marriage
Bride Price?
compensation given from the family of the groom to the family of the bride
Bride Service?
in societies where wealth cannot be gathered for a bride price, the groom is expected to work for a period for the bride’s family
involves the transfer of goods from the pride’s family to the groom’s
that is formal, stylized, repetitive, and stereotyped; it is performed earnestly as a social act and reinforced with social interaction
the realm outside the observable world
the belief in spirits or souls; a belief that natural objects are animated by spirits (this belief can take diverse forms)
a belief in a supernatural power apart from “beings\"
Example of aimatism; an impersonal supernatural force of “good” and “bad” luck; a force (not spirit) that is in same things and not in others—can act as an explanation
Spirits? Two types of spirits?
Supernatural beings (or elements) of lesser power than gods: regular and ancestor spirits
Regular spirits?
supernatural beings that interact with humans in many ways (good, evil, specific, and general)
Ancestor spirits?
supernatural beings that were once humans; very common; some interact with humans, some do not
What type of gods are in food producing societies?
What type of gods are in foraging societies?
Zoomorphic (or natural phenomena)
techniques involving the supernatural intended to accomplish specific aims
materials and objects to do magic
using thought and emotion to do magic
Usually male and part-time religious specialist; usually given high status within the community
Make bad things happen; given low status in community or even outcast; either male or female
Generally female; part-time practitioners
Full-time practitioners; usually male; given high status
Individualistic Cults?
Most basic type of religious oragnization; a \"do-it-yourself\" religion; associated with hunter/gatherer bands
Shamanistic Cults?
Simplest form of religion division of labor; associated with hunter/gather bands
Communal Cults?
Groups of people that perform religious ceremonies for larger community; associated with horticulturalists and pastoralists
Rites of passage?
ceremonies that mark a change in a person’s social status…birth, puberty, marriage, death
Rites of solidarity?
ceremonies which are directed to the welfare of the community vs the individual
Ecclesiastical cults?
Most complex form of religious organization; found in large-scale state societies

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