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Hist 1302 Test 2 Ron Wright


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Expansionism and the US
The US has been the most aggressive in the late 1800's, however, no overseas expansion till 1890's
Manifest Destiny
Written by John O'Sullivan; move West
Alaska Purchase
Bought by William Seward (under ridicule) for $10 mil; was sold by the Czar; Gold strike in 1899
William Seward
Bought Alaska, and suggested that we claim "Midway" (Hawaii)
US Foreign Policy
isolationist-no military alliance or international organizations; nonexpansionist overseas
In 1880 US Army was only 20k men b/c of...
general military distrust
World naval powers of 1880 were:
1.Britain 2.France... 12. US (Portugal had a better navy)
US had Free Security, which means...
there was no threat from any other countries, no money was spent on defense
***4 "D"s (arguments) for US oversea expansion
1.Dollars 2.Destiny 3.Defense 4.Duty
Dollars - argument for oversea expansion
Economic motivation- related to Markets and Resources; US had more exports than imports, and there was a desire for overseas resources
Destiny - argument for oversea expansion
Wealth=power (national greatness); it was the Age of Imperialism-world was being carved between countries
Defense - argument for oversea expansion
Admiral Mahan's book "Influence of Sea Power Upon American History" basically said Sea Power = World Power
***Three points in Mahans "Influence of Sea Power Upon American History"
1.US needs to build a merchant fleet 2.Build a modern steel fleet (battleship) 3.Colonies overseas for naval bases "coaling stations"
Following the points outlined in "Influence of Sea Power Upon American History," the US accomplished what 2 things?
1.By 1898 the US was the 3rd World naval power 2.In 1887 the US had exclusive basing rights to Pearl Harbor
Duty - argument for oversea expansion
It was a moral obligation; views of Josiah Strong and Richard Kipling
Josiah Strong
wrote "Our Country" very racist book stating that anglo saxons were superior; backed the "duty" argument of oversea expansion
Richard Kipling
"White Man's Burden" point of view; backed the "duty" argument of oversea expansion
***What year was the Spanish/American War fought?***
Three main points in Mahan's "Influence of Sea Power Upon American History"
1.US needs to build a merchant fleet 2.Build a modern steel fleet (battleship) 3.Colonies overseas for naval bases "coaling stations"
Conditions for the start of the Span/Am War (America not yet physically involved)
Cuba under Spanish control, high tariff on imported US goods dropped the economy; Cuban revolt of 1895-1898
How did Cuban rebels in the Span/Am war fight?
guerilla warfare
The Spanish army used what in the Span/Am war?
concentration camps
US broadcast of the Span/Am war
newspapers broadcast the revolt; associated press
US competitors in the coverage of the Span/Am war
William Randoph Hearst-NY Journal vs. Joseph Pulitzer- The NY World
US slant on Cuban revolt coverage
Papers nicknamed Gen. Weyler "Butcher Weyler; F. Remington helped create an anti-spanish frenzy
Yellow Press
F. Remington - artist who lied in his drawings; anti-spanish frenzy
What was the "spark" that ignited the Span/Am War
USS Maine; war declared w/ spain; "Remember the Maine, to hell w/ Spain"
Teller Amendment
Was to "Free Cuba," but they had to put the Platt Amendment in their constitution
Battle of Manila Bay - May 1 1898
First battle of the Span/Am war
In 1898 McKinley annexed...
What treaty was signed in 1898?
Treaty of Paris
Anti-Imperialist League
Against taking the Phillipines; expensive and would involve us w/ Asian affairs
Phillipine Revolt
led by Emilio Aquinaldo; for Phillipino freedom
Emilio Aquinaldo
wanted complete Phillipino freedom, didn't like US control instead of spanish
To end the Phillipine Revolt:
W. Taft was brought in to "win the war"; carrot and stick tactics to win the support of the commoners; no place to hide; guaranteed phillipine independence
***Who are the 4 Progressive Presidents?
1.McKinley-Rep 2.Theodore Roosevelt-Rep 3.W.Taft-Rep 4.Woodrow Wilson-Dem
The phillipines and China debates
Take the phillipines to serve as economic base into china? no resources there
China was being carved into____;"Treaty Ports" were necessary to ____
spheres of influence;the ability to sell to the Chinese
Open Door Policy letters stated what 2 things?
1.Told China to open trade to all countries equally 2.No more territory to be carved from China (only this demand was listened to)
What country tested the open door policy?
The panama canal-started by ___; finished by___
The French Company (De'Lessep was the amazing engineer); the US (Roosevelt bought the French assets after their failure)
What bargain was struck w/ Panama that enabled the finish of the canal?
Panama got its independence in exchange for the same labor deal that the french got w/ them
Platt Amendment meant what?
Cuba became a "protectorate" of the US; have their own gv't but US has veto powers on their affairs; amendment rescinded in 1930's
The Theodore Roosevelt Corollary to Monroe Doctrine
Started the "policeman of the Americas" mentality by sending US forces to collect the Dominican Republic debt owed to Europe; strategic intervention to keep Europeans home
What 4 things happened during Taft's presidency?
1.suggested US investment in Middle America 2.Economic increase 3.Less or no international "police-ing" 4.Dollar Diplomacy
What did the Dollar Diplomacy do?
It made economic intervention acceptable
What happened during Wilson's presidency that made moral intervention acceptable?
Pancho Villa attacked New Mexico and fled South; Villa chased into Mexico
What happened during the Progressive Reform Era in the US?
1.US standard of living highest in the world 2.Urban middle class created (40% of population) 3.World Naval Power 4.Peaceful times
What 5 problems of the US were publicly displayed by "muckrakers"?
1.materialism-Mark Twain's Gilded Age 2. Danger from monopoly (super rich) 3.Dire Poverty 4.How to assimilate immigrants? 5.Gov't solution/action? nothing
Jacob Riis
Impressive muckraker- He photographed how the poor were living, especially those in Dumbbell housing (12'x12' apts for 5 families); published "how the other half lives"
Main problems that the muckrakers were complaining were not addressed
City machines-corruption; Inertia-doing things the same way as in the past
***Who were the progressives? 6 points***
1.Middle Class 2.Reformers not radicals 3.Bi-partisan 4.Optimists 5.Faith in Gov't 6."Enemies List"-City bosses and Robber Barons
What did the progressives want to accomplish? (3 things)
1.Make the US more democratic 2.Regulation of business 3.Make the National Gv't more active
***What were the 4 progressive amendments that made the US more democratic?***
1.17th-direct senator election 2.19th-women's voting rights 3.24th-no more poll tax 4.(don't know)th-no literacy test
Pure Food and Drug Act passed by Roosevelt after:
Upton Sinclairs "The Jungle, Roosevelt had reports done on meat and drug production
18th Amendment
Ilegalization of alcohol (75% of counties became dry) rescinded by the 21st amendment
Exise taxes
"sin tax" on alcohol and tax on gasoline
Progressive Laws create
less liberties
A more active government causes what?
increased cost; income tax on those making above the national average, IRS created
World wide conscription of all men to armies occurred in what war?
World War I; Great Britain was an exception, it had no draft
***Who were the Central Powers in WWI?
Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Turkey
***Who were the Allies in WWI?
Belgium, Serbia, Britain, Russia, Italy, and France
Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia b/c of___; leading to____
the murder of their national leader; a cascade of war declarations between the Allies and the Central Powers
Germany attacked France via
neutral Belgium
WWI locked ___ into the war that was believed to only last ____
every major European nation; 2-3months long max
WWI became a ___
stalemate- no country's war success plan worked
Why was WWI a stale mate?
Industrialization had changed warfare forever (unforseen casualties), first total war
New weapons of WWI
Machine guns, artillery fire (75% of casualties), and poison gas; caused killing to be distanced, not personal and bravery no longer counts
US was determined to do what related to WWI
stay out of the war (successful for 3 yrs)
WWI was a war of ___
attrition - pound each other until someone gives
US declared neutrality b/c
1/3 of population were hyphenated americans
***Most Americans supported who? (allies or central power)
pro Allies
Propaganda was used in WWI to market what?
What country was for and which one was against US entrance into WWI?
British for, Germans against
How was it proposed to win the economic war of attrition?
Britain blockaded Germany, Germans sunk ships w/ U boats around England's coast
SS Lusitania
British passenger ship sunk by U boats; 128 US lives lost
Sussex pledge
From Germany to the US stating a change of the unrestricted submarine warfare to not target specific ships when the US threatened to break diplomatic relations with them
Wilson's Peace Offensive
Diplomats sent to all European countries to stop the war (peace w/ out victory), and increases US battle supply productions -FAILURE
Wilson's reelection slogan
he kept us out of war
Germany drastically increased sub production from 1916 to 1917 to...
knock Britain out of the war in 6-months and win
The US broke diplomatic relations w/ Germany b/c of
unrestricted submarine warfare
US forced into the war b/c of
1.Zimmermann Note 2.5 US ships sunk by Uboats
Zimmermann Note
Telegram to Mexico to ally w/ Germany (if US declares war on Germany, Mexico declares war on the US) Mexico would get NM, TX, and AZ if they won
How much of Congress agreed w/ entering WWI when Wilson asked?
***What were Wilson's 2 slogans for WWI?
1."The war to end all wars" 2."Make the world safe for democracy"
***What role did the US play in WWI and how did it effect us?
US played a decisive role via the convoy system by breaking the U boat blockade
Selective Service in the US
Draft-kept the skilled labor force home to work, and sent unskilled labor off to DIE
How to convert peace to wartime economy:
1.War industries board 2.Food administration 3.Committee of Public Information
***War Industries Board
Headed by Bernie Baruch- the czar of the Am. Economy; "Carrot and Stick" method
***Food Administration
headed by Herbert Hoover; to feed the US and the allies; "food will win the war"
***Committe of Public Information
headed by George Creel; "witch hunting"- anti-german; sauerkraut becomes liberty cabbage
All the heads of committees that were formed to convert the US economy to wartime worked for how much?
Sedition Law
Most repressive US law; it was a federal crime to criticize the gv't, war, etc.
Results of the Sedition Law
1500 arrested, 1000 imprisoned; Debs-passive socialist who was one of the first to test the law was sentenced to 10 years in prison
***Where did the US fight WWI?
In france, US soldiers nicknamed
American Expeditionary Force
AEF Led by John J. Pershing (nicknamed Black Jack b/c he previously served w/ blacks) Was the US armed forces sent to France in WWI
When the US entered the war Britain had how much food supply left?
8 weeks
How did the US break the U boat blockade by 1917?
By sending masses of merchant ships flanked by destroyers
The fall of dynasties in Eurasia left room for what?
Dictatorship, not Democracy
Russian monarchy fell, and ___ took its place
Lenin and communism
How did Russia leave WWI?
Lenin pulled them out of the war, double dealing the allies and signing a treaty w/ germany
Germany's last great offensive
broke British defense and almost take their ports; tried for Paris and was halted 20 miles away; US helped to push them back into Germany
Germany sent orders to break the blockade w/ US and Germany for supplies
Full scale mutiny-raised red communist flags and the revolt spread through the gv't
Last day of the war-Armistice Day
fighting was to cease at 11a, but US fired off shells from 11a to midnight
Human cost of WWI
military-10 million+ dead (tomb of the unknown soldier)
Wilson's 14 points of peace w/out victory outlined at the Paris Peace Conference
1.Freedom of the Seas- Britain laughed 2.Disarmament- France laughed 3.self-determination of all people- Italy wanted Austria 4.Collective Security- only success
draw borders of countries based on nationality
***collective security
peaceful nations band together - LEAGUE OF NATIONS
Who wrote the ***treaty at the peace conf. (big 4) and who wasn't there?
1.US-Wilson 2.Great Britain 3.Italy 4.France- George Clemenceau; Germany and Russia
George Clemenceau
"Tiger of France" he insulted Wilson in public
What place becomes home for the peace conference in may 1919?
Versailles Palace
It was a harsh treaty for Germany b/c of:
1.No armies(only 100k people total)or technological weapons 2.war guilt clause
war guilt clause
Germany takes responsibility for starting the war- germany was in impermanent economic ruin
germany forced to sign treaty b/c
they were blockaded until the signing, even after the end of the war
Who was Foch?
Supreme commander of the allied forces, "there is no peace"; predicted WWII to the year

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