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BS 110 Exam 1 Terms

Terms

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Meiosis phase 1
Each cell contains a duplicated copy of a chromosome
Deoxyribose
Sugar in DNA
DNA polymerase I
Makes complementary strand on the parent strand that is positioned from the 3' to 5'
Recessive
Does not show unless homozygous recessive
Autosomal
Any chromosome that is not a sex chromosome
Thymine
T, pyrimidine, pairs with A
Homozygous
Two alleles of the gene are the same
Dominant
If this allele is present, the individual shows this trait
Transcription
Copies information from gene to a sequence of RNA
Allele
DNA sequence that occupies a given locus on a chromosome. Usually they are sequences that code for genes
Amino Acid
Basic component of proteins
Purine
Largest of the nitrogenous bases, A and G
Genotype
Genetic constitution of an individual organism
Sex cell
Gamete, egg or sperm
Law of Independent Assortment
Each member of a pair of homologous chromosomes separates independently of the members of other pairs
RNA
Ribonucleic Acid, 1 stranded
Anaphase
The centromere seems to break and the separated chromatids move apart toward opposite poles
Nucleotides
Made up of nitrogenous base, sugar, and phosphate group
Nucleus
Where DNA is found
Theory
A unifying principle supported by a wide range of observations
Annealed
two strands are together
Codon
A sequence of 3 bases and each one codes for a particular amino acid
Heterozygous
Two alleles of the gene are different
Organelle
Part of a cell that carries out a specific function
Transfer RNA
Carries amino acids and lines up on mRNA in proper sequence and form a polypeptide chain
n
number of chromosomes (not counting duplicates), haploid
Alternative Hypothesis
Other explanation
DNA Replication
Enzymes (Helicase) breaks bonds between bases, helix unwinds exposing free bases, free nucleotides pair with exposed bases
Mendel's Laws
Genes do not blend together, genes can have multiple versions (alleles), each gamete contains one allele of each gene, males and females contribute equally to the genotype of their offspring, some alleles are dominate to others
Protein
Synthesized from the polypeptide chains
Meiosis phase 2
Haploid cells
Messenger RNA
Forms a complementary copy of DNA and carries the information to the cytoplasm
G2 Phase
Cell prepares to divide
diploid
2 copies of each chromosome
Daughter Cell
Cell originating through division or replication
Observation
What we see in the natural world
Guanine
G, purine, pairs with C
Deductive Reasoning
Accepted general principle. Uses logic rather than observation
Genome
Complete set of genes or genetic information
Telophase
Complete diploid set of chromosomes at each pole of the cell
Adenine
A, purine, pairs with T
2n
number of chromosomes with duplicates, diploid
Prophase
Fibrous chromosomes begin to condense and become discernable as individual structures
Phosphate group
Part of the sugar phosphate backbone in the double helix
Chromosomes
Where DNA is stored
Law of Segregation
Pairs of alleles segregate during the formation of gametes
Metaphase
The paired chromatids more to a plane near the center of the cell
Homologous chromosomes
Chromosomes that have the same structural characteristics but are not necessarily identical
Null Hypothesis
Nothing has changed
Phenotype
An observed quality of an organism and sometimes changes due to the environment
Lagging strand
3' to 5' strand
Meiosis
Process by which gametes are formed and the number of chromosomes is reduced from 2n to n, from a diploid to a haploid cell
Mitosis
Cell division of somatic cells
Cytosine
C, pyrimidine, pairs with G
haploid
1 copy of each chromosome
Helicase
Enzyme that breaks bonds between bases
Polypeptide
Chain of bonded amino acids
S Phase
Cell's DNA is duplicated
Double helix
Spiral staircase or twisted ladder
Inductive Reasoning
Observation of specific events that leads to an accepted general principle
Macromolecule
Large molecule
DNA Polymerase II
Moves smoothly from the 5' end to the 3' end of DNA
Hypothesis
Potential explanation
DNA
Macromolecule, long term storage of information, control cells, can replicate, is copied to produce proteins, and can mutate
Gene
A region of DNA that influences a particular characteristic in the organism
G1 Phase
Cell's DNA is unduplicated, growth and metabolic roles, and decides whether to continue
Histones
Proteins that DNA gets wrapped around
Translation
Converts RNA sequence to amino acid sequence
Punnett Square
Way to predict the offspring produced by a particular mating
Interphase
Chromosomes are invisible under a light microscope. Consists of G1, S, and G2 phases.
Uracil
Use this nitrogenous base in RNA rather than thymine
Scientific Method
Observe, form hypothesis, make predictions, test hypothesis, conduct controls to eliminate hypothesis, form conclusion from remaining hypotheses
Gamete
Haploid sex cell
3' end
3rd carbon from oxygen
Pyrimidine
Smallest of the nitrogenous bases, T and C
Control Group
Experiments that test specific variables
5' end
Phosphate end, 5th carbon from oxygen
Leading strand
5' to 3' strand

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