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system 2

Terms

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polyneuritis
inflammation involving two or more nervers, often caused by a nutritional deficiency such as lack of thiamine
spondylosyndesis
spinal fusion
meningioma
benign tumor of the coverings of the brain (meninges)
cerebrovascular accident (CVA)
damage to the brain caused by cerebrovascular disease; e.g. occlusion of a blood vessel by an embolus or thrombus or intracranial hemorrhage after rupture of an aneurysm
hypochodriasis
a preoccupation with thoughts of disease and concern that one is suffering from a serious condition that persists despite medical reassurance to the contrary
thalamus (diencephalon)
each of two gray matter nuclei deep within the brain responsible for relaying sensory information to the cortex
myelitis
inflammation of the spinal cord
herniated disk (disc)
protrusion of a degenerated or fragmented intervertebral disk so that the nucleus pulposus protrudes, causing compression on the nerve root
gyri
convolutions (mounds) of the cerebral hemispheres
craniotomy
incision into the skull to approach the brain
Babinski sign or reflex
pathological response to stimulation of the plantar surface of the foot; a positive sign is indicated when the toes dorsiflex (curl upward)
deep tendon reflexes (DTR)
involuntary muscle contraction after percussion at a tendon (e.g., patella, Achilles) indicating function; positivefindings are either no refles reponse or an exaggerated response to stimulus; numbers are often used to record reponses: no response 1+ diminished reponse 2+ normal reponse 3+ more brisk than average response 4+ hyperactive response
mening/o or meningi/o
meninges (membrane)
stereotactic (stereotaxic) radiosurgery
radiation treatment to inactivate malignant lesions, using multiple, precise external radiation beams focused on a target with the aid of a stereotactic frame and imaging such as CT, MRI, or angiography; used to treat inoperable brain tumors and other lesions
cerebrovascular disease
disorder resulting from a change within one or more blood vessels of the brain
hemiplegia
paraylsis on one side of the body
dysphoria
a restless, dissatisfied mood
somn/o or somni/o or hypn/o
sleep
attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
a dysfunction characterized by consistent hyperactivity, distractibility, and lack of control over impulses, which interferes with ability to function normally at school, home, or work
Alzheimer disease
diseaes of structural changes in the brain resulting in an irreversible deterioration that progresses from forgetfulness and disorientation to loss of all intellectual functions, total disability, and death
apathy
a lack of intreset or display of emotion
cognitive therapy
treatment to change unwanted patterns of thinking
myasthenia gravis
autoimmune disorder that affects the neuromuscular junction causing a progressive decrease in muscle strength; activity resumes and strength returns after a period of rest
stere/o
three dimensional or solid
posttraumatice stress disorder (PTSD)
a condition resulting from an extremely traumatic experience, injury, or illness that leaves the sufferer with persistent thoughts and memories of the ordeal; may occur affter a war, violent personal assault, physical or sexual abuse, serious accident, nautral disaster; symptoms include feelings of fear, detachment, exaggerated startle response, restlessnesss, nightmares, and avoidance of anything or anyone who triggers the painful recollections
brainstem
region of the brain that serves as a relay between the cerebrum, cerebellum, and spinal cord; responsible for breathing, heart rate, and body temperature; the three levels are the mesencephalon (midbrain), pons, and medulla oblongata
obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)
an anxiety disorder featuring unwanted, senseless obsessions accompanined by repeated compulsions; can interfere with all aspects of a person's daily life, for example, the thought that a door is not locked with repetitive checking to make sure it is locked, or thoughts that one's body has been contaminated causing repetitive washing
euphoria
an exaggerate, unfounded feeling of well-being
substance abuse disorders
mental disorders resulting from abuse of substances such as drugs, alcohol, or other toxins, causing personal and social dysfunction; identified by the abused substance, such as alcohol abuse, amphetamine abuse, opioid (narcotic) abuse, and polysubstance abuse
autism
a developmental disability commonly appearing during the first three years of life, resulting from a neurologic disorder affecting brain function, evidenced by difficulties with verbal and nonverbal communication, and an inability to relate to anything beyond oneself in social interactions; persons with autism often exhibit body movements such as rocking and repetitive hand movements; they commonly become preoccupied with observing parts of small objects or moving parts or preforming meaningless rituals
kinesi/o
movement
affect
emotional feeling or mood
behavioral therapy
treatment to decrease or stop unwanted behavior
analgesic
agent that relieves pain
chemotherapy
treatment of malignancies, infections, and other disease with chemical agents to destroy selected cells or impair their ability to reproduce
transient ischemic attack (TIA)
brief episode of loss of blood flow to the brain; usually caused by a partial occlusion that results in temporary neurologic deficit (impairment); often precedes a CVA
paralysis
temporary or permanent loss of motor control
computed tomography
computed tomographic x-ray images of the head used to visualize abnormalities, such as brain tumors and malformations
grandiose delusion
a person's false belief that he or she possesses great wealth, intelligence, or power
central nervous system (CNS)
brain and spinal cord
magnetic resonance angiography (MRA)
magnetic resonance imaging of the blood vessels, for detecing pathologic conditions such as thrombosis and atherosclerosis
agonsia
any of many types of loss of neurologic function involving interpretation of sensory information
neuroplasty
surgical repair of a nerve
-paresis
slight paralysis
cerebral cortex
outer layer of the cerebrum consisting of gray matter, responsible for higher mental functions (cortex = bark)
poliomyelitis
inflammation of the gray matter of the spinal cord caused by a virus, often resulting in spinal and muscle deformity and paraylsis (polio = gray)
sympathetic nervous system
division of the ANS concerned primarily with preparing the body in stressful or emergency situations
spondyl/o or vertebr/o
vertebra
sensory nerves
nerves that conduct impulses from body parts and carry sensory information to the brain; also called afferent nerves (ad = toward; ferre = carry)
Parkinson disease
slowly progressice degeneration of nerves in the brain characterized by tremor, rigidity of muscles, and slow movements (bradykinesia), usually occuring later in life
ton/o
tone, tension
absence
seizure involving a brief loss of consciousness without motor involvment; previously termed petit mal (little bad) siezures
hydrocephalus
abnormal accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid in the ventricles of the brain as a result of developmental anomalies, infection, injury, or tumor
cerebral thrombosis
presence of a stationary clot in a blood vessel of the brain
general anxiety disorder (GAD)
the mosts common anxiety disorder, characterized by chronic, excessive, uncontrollable worry about everyday problems; affects the ability to relax or concentrate but dose not usually interfere with social interactions or employment; physical symptons include muscle tension, trembling, twitching, fatigue, headaches, nausea, and insomnia
psychotropic drugs
medications used to treat mental illnesses (trop/o = a turning)
cerebral arteriosclerosis
hardening to the arteries of the brain
glioma
tumor of glial cells graded by degree of malignancy
gangli/o
ganglion (knot)
neur/o
nerve
laminectomy
excision of one or more laminae of the vertebrae to approach the spinal cord
partial
seizure involving only limited areas of the brain with localized symptoms
flat affect
significantly dulled emotional tone or outward reaction
antianxiety agents; anxiolytic agents
drugs used to reduce anxiety
sleep apnea
periods of breathing cessation (10 seconds or more) that occur during sleep, often causeing snoring
sedative
agent that quiets nervousness
crani/o
skull
myelogram
x-ray of the spinal cord made after intraspinal injection of contrast medium
plegia
paraylsis
tactile stimulation
evoking a response by touching
cerebr/o
cerebrum (largest part of brain)
brain
protion of the central nervous system contained within the cranium
narcolepsy
sleep disorder characterized by a sudden, uncontrollable need to sleep, attacks of paralysis (cataplexy), and dreams intruding while awake (hypnagogic hallucinations)
magnetic resonance imaging
nonionizing imaging technique using magnetic fields (MRI) and radio frequency waves to visualize anatomic structures (especially soft tissue) such as the tissues of the brain and spinal cord
paresthesia
abnormal sensation of numbness and tingling without objective cause
mental retardation
a condition of subaverage intelligence characterized by an IQ of 70 or belowe, resulting in the inability to adapt to normal social activities
stereotactic (stereotaxic) frame
mechanical device used to localise a point in space targeting a precise site
cerebral aneurysm
dilation of a blood vessel in the brain (aneurysm = dilation or widening)
reflex testing
test preformed to observe the body's response to a stimulus
antidepressent
agent that counteracts depression
syncope
fainting
asterognosis
inability to judge the form of an object by touch (e.g., a coin from a key)
cerebellum
protion of the brain located belowe the occipital lobes of the cerebrum, responsible for control and coordinationof skeletal muscles
radiation therapy
treatment of neoplastic disease using ionizing radiation to impede proliferation of malignant cells
electroencephalogram (EEG)
record of the minute electrical impulses of the brain, used to identify neurologic conditions that affect brain function and level of consciousness
nacr/o
stupor, sleep
dementia
an impairment of intellectual function characterized by memory loss, disorientation, and confusion (dementio = to be mad)
psychosis
a mental condition characterized by distortion of reality resulting in the inability to communicate or function within one's enviornment
phob/o
exaggerated fear or sensitivity
-mania
abnormal impulse (attraction) toward
esthesi/o
sensation
electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)
electrical shock applied to the brain to induce convulsions; used to treat severly depressed patients
SPECT brain scan (single photon emission computed tomography)
scan combining nuclear medicine and computed tomography to produce images of the brain after administration of radioactive isotopes
schiz/o
split
encephal/o
entire brain
phobia
exaggerated fear of a specific object or circumstance that causes anxiety and panic; named for the object or circumstance, such as agoraphobia (marketplace), claustrophobia (confinement), and acrophobia (high places)
hyperesthesia
increased sensitivity to stimulation such as touch or pain
cerebral atherosclerosis
condition of lipid (fat) buildup within the blood vessels of the brain (ather/o = fatty [lipid] paste)
psycotherapy
treatment of psychiatric disorders using verbal and nonverbal interaction with patients, individually or in a group, employing specific actions and techniques
Huntington chorea; Huntington disease (HD)
hereditary disease of the central nervous system characterized by bizarre involuntary body movements and progressive dementia (choros = dance)
neuroleptic agents
drugs used to treat psychosis, especially schizophrenia
cerebrospinal fluid
plasma like clear fluid circulationg in and around the brain and spinal cord
microsurgery
use of a microscope to dissect minute structures during surgery
lumbar puncture (LP)
introduction of a specialized needle into the spine in the lumbar region for diagnostic or therapeutic purpose, such as to obtain cerebrospinal fluid for testing; also called spinal tap
neuralgia
pain along the course of a nerve
convulsion
to pull together; type of seizure that causes a series of sudden, involuntary contractions of muscles
nuclear medicine imaging
radionuclide organ imaging
seizure
sudden, transient disturbances in brain function resulting from abnormal firing of nerve impulses (may or may not be associated with convulsion)
temporal lobe
portion that lies below the frontal lobe, responsible for hearing, taste, and smell
evoked potentials
minute electrical waves that are sorted out of ongoing EEG activity to diagnose auditory, visual, and sensory pathway disorders
somat/o
body
neurosis
a psychologic condition in which anziety is prominent
atopognosis
inability to locate a sensation properly, such as to locate a point touched on the body
phor/o
carry, bear
motor deficit
loss or impairment of muscle function
cerebral embolism
obstruction of a blood vessel in the brain by an embolus transported through the circulation
aphasia
inability to speak
positron emisson tomography (PET)
technigue combining nuclear medicine and computed tomography to produce images of brain anatomy and corresponding physiology; used to study stroke, Alzeheimer disease, epilepsy, metabolic brain disorders, chemistry of nerve transmission in the brain, and so on; provides greater accuracy than SPECT but is used less often becaue of cost and limited availability of the radioisotopes
cerebell/o
cerebellum (little brain)
craniectomy
excision of part of the skull to approach the brain
gli/o
glue
catatonia
a state of unresponsiveness to one's outside enviornment, usually including muscle rigidity, staring, and inability to communicate
fissures
deep grooves in the brain
spinal cord
column of nervous tissue from the brainstem through the vertebrae, responsible or nerve conducion to and from the brain and the body
multiple sclerosis
disease of the central nervous system characterized by the demyelination (deterioration of the myelin sheath) of nerve fibers, with episodes of neurologic dysfunction (exacerbation) followed by recovery (remission)
migraine headache
paroxysmal (sudden, periodic) attacks of mostly unilateral hedache often accompanined by disordered vision, nausea, or vomiting, lasting hours or days, and caused by dilation of arteries
phren/o or psych/o or thym/o
mind
sulci
shallow grooves that seperate gyri
hypnotic
agent that induces sleep
sensory deficit
loss or impairment of sensation
coma
a deep sleep; a general term referring to levels of decreased consciousness with varying responsiveness; a common method of assesment is the Glasgow coma scale
quadriplegia
paraylsis of all four limbs
flaccid paraylsis
defective (flabby) or absent mucsle control caused by a nerve lesion
spastic paraylsis
stiff and awkward muscle control caused by a central nervous system disorder
sciatica
pain that follows the pathway of the sciatic nerve caused by compression or trauma of the nerve or its roots
delirium
a state of mental confusion caused by disturbances in cerebral function; the many causes include fever, shock, or drug overdose (deliro = to draw the furrow away when plowing, i.e. to go off the rails)
thalam/o
thalamus (a room)
lex/o
word or phrase
tax/o
order or coordination
hemiparesis
partial paraylsis of the right or left half of the body
peripheral nervous system (PNS)
nerves that branch from the central nervous system, including nerves of the brain (cranial nerves) and spinal cord (spinal nerves)
gnos/o
knowing
seasonal affective disorder (SAD)
an affective disorder marked by episodes of depression that most often occur during the fall and winter and remit in the spring
frontal lobe
anterior section of each cerebral hemisphere responsible for voluntary muscle movement and personality
anticovulsant
angent that prevents or lessens convulsions
Intracranial MRA
magnetic resonance image of the head to visualize the vessels of the circle of Willis (common site of cerebral aneurysm, stenosis, or occlusion)
light therapy
use of specialized illuminating light boxes and visors to treat seasonal affective disorder
-lepsy
seizure
phas/o
speech
cerebral palsy (CP)
condition of motor dysfunction caused by damage to the cerebrum during development or injury at birth; characterized by partial paraylsis and lack of muscle coordination (pasly = paraylsis)
extracranial MRA
magnetic resonance image of the neck to visualize the carotid artery
spin/o
spine (thorn)
transcranial sonogram
image made by sending ultrasound beams through the skull to asses blood flow in intracranial vessels; used in diagnosis and management of stroke and head trauma
mania
state of abnormal elation and increased activity
tonic-clonic
stiffening-jerking; a major motor seizure involving all muscle groups; previously termed grand mal (big bad) seizure
delusion
persistent belief that has no basis in reality
cranial nerves
12 pairs of nerves arising from the brain
-plegia
paralysis
ventricles
series of interconnected cavities within the cerebral hemisphere and brainstem filled with cerebrospinal fluid
spinal nerves
31 pairs of nerves arising from the spinal cord
major depression; OR major depressive illness; OR clinical depression; OR major sffective disorder; OR unipolar disorder
a disorder causing periodic disturbances in mood that affect concentration, sleep, activity, appetite, and social behavior; characterized by feelings of worthlessness, fatigue, and loss of interest
vertebral lamina
flattened posterior protion of the vertebral arch
ventriculo/
vernticle (belly or pouch)
herpes zoster
viral disease affectiong the peripheral nerves characterized by painful blisters that spread over the skin following the affected nerves, usually unilateral; also know as shingles
hallucination
a false perception of the senses for which there is no reality, most commonly hearing or seeing things (alucinor = to wander in mind)
radiography
x-ray imaging
dyslexia
a developmental disability characterized by a diffucllty understanding written or spoken words, sentences, or paragraphs, affecting reading, spelling, and self-expression
myel/o
spinal cord or bone marrow
spina bifida
congenital defect in the spinal column characterized by the absence of vertebral arches, often resulting in pouching of spinal membranes or tissue
cerebrum
largest portion of the brain; divided into right and left halves, know as cerebral hemispheres, that are connected by a bridge of nerve fibers called the corpus callosum; lobes of the cerebrum are named after the skull bones they underlie
manic depression bipolar disorder (BD)
affective disorder characterized by mood swings of mania and depression (extreme up and down states)
dyphasia
difficulty speaking
schizophrenia
a disease of brain chemistry causing a distorted cognitive and emotional perception of one's enviornment; symptoms include distortions of normal function such as disorganized thought, delusions, hallucinations, and catatonic behavior; negative symptons (normal reactions missing in persons with schizophrenia) include flat affect, apathy, and withdrawal from reality
motor nerves
nerves that conduct morter impulses from the brain to muscles and glands; also called efferent nerves (e = out; ferre = carry)
cerebral angiogram
x-ray of blood vessels in the brain after intracarotid injection of contrast medium
epilepsy
disorder affecting the central nervous system, characterized by recurrent seizures
-asthenia
weakness
meningitis
inflammation of the meninges
meninges
three membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord, consisting of the sura mater, pia mater, and arachnoid mater
parietal lobe
protion posterior to the frontal lobe, responsible for sensations such as pain, temperature, and touch
cata-
down
autonomic nervous system (ANS)
nerves that carry involuntary impulses to smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and various glands
top/o
place
diskectomy (discectomy)
removal of a herniated disk; often done percutaneously (per = through; cutaneous = skin)
parasympathetic nervous system
division of the ANS that is most active in ordinary conditions; it counterbalances the effects of the sympathetic system by restoring the body to a restful state after a stressful experience
dysthymia
a milder affective disorder characterized by a chronic depression
thought disorder
thought that lacks clear processing or logical direction
occipital lobe
protion posterior to the parietal and temporal lobes, responsible for vision
bulimia nervosa
an eating disorder characterized by binge eating followed by efforts to limit digestion through induced vomiting, use of laxatives, or excessive exercise
persecutory delusion
a person's false belief that someone is plotting against him or her with intent to harm
hypthalamus
control center for the autonomic nervous sustem located below the thalamus (diencephalon)
encephalitis
inflammation of the brain
parpelgia
pararylsis from the waist down
anorexia nervosa
a severe disturbance in eating behavior caused by abnormal perception about one's body weight, evidenced by an overwhelming fear of becoming fat that results in a refusal to eat and body weight well below normal
ideation
the formation of thoughts of ideas; for example, suicidal ideation (thoughts of suicide)
panic disorder (PD)
a disorder of sudden, recurrent attacks of intense feelings, including physical symptons that mimic a heart attack (rapid heart rate, chest pain, shortness of breath, chills, sweating, and dizziness), with a genral sense of loss of control or feeling that death is imminent; often progresses to agoraphobia
polysomnography (PSG)
recording of various aspects of sleep (e.g., eye and muscle movements, respiration, and EEG patterns) to diagnose sleep disorders

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