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Microbiology Video 4


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What is diagnosed using a Direct Florescent Antibody Test?
Whooping Couph (Bordatella Pertussis)
What are the distinguishing characteristics of all Campylobacter?
Gram negative curved rod with polar flagella
What will a disease that attacks the colon appear as clinically?
bloody type mucus, white blood cell infection
What will a disease that attacks the small intestine appear as, clinically?
diarrhea, watery, vomiting type infection
What are the two organisms that are microaerophilic?
Campylobacter and helicobacter
What does campylobacter jejuni cause?
What is the classic description of the microscopic appearance of campylobacter?
gulls wings
How do we get campylobacter?
Fecal-oral, primarily from chicken, but all kinds of animals have this organism
What is the clinical appearance of campylobacter?
it attacks the COLON and is a bloody, pusy, mucus diarrhea

Patient will be haveing 10 or more stools per day
Where does campylobacter attack?
What is the most common infectious diarrhea worldwide?
Campylobacter jejuni
What is helicobacter pylori a cause of?
gastritis and duodenal ulcers, which can lead to stomach cancer
What is the reservoir for helicobacter pylori and what is the ode of transmission?
Fecal-oral or oral-oral
What is the test for helicobacter pylori?
Person is fed radioactive Carbon-13 urea, and then the urease from the organism breaks up the urea and produces Carbon 13 carbon dioxide, which is measurable
What are the virulence factors of helicobacter?
urease-positve - ammonium cloud neutralizeds stomach acid, allowing survival

Mucinase - aids in penitration of mucous layer it helps survive the rapid shift down to neutral as it penitrates into stomach lining, where pH is neutral.
What is the treatment for helicobacter?
Two antibiotics, one of which is metronidazol
proton pump inhibitor
What are the distinguishing characteristics of all organisms in the Enterobacteriaceae family?
Gram-negative rods
Facultative anaerobes
Cytochrome C oxidase negative
Reduce nitrates to nitrites
What the the pathogenicity of the enterobacteriaceae due to?
sometimes exotoxin
O, H, K, Vi Antigens
What is the O antigen?
O = Outer Membrane
H = flagellar antigen
K = capsular polysacccharide antigen
Vi = Salmonella capsular antigen
Which antigen is important in neonatal menengitis and what organism does it belong to?
K1 antigen of E.Coli
What is the media that you always put gram negative organisms on?
it allows gram negative organisms to grow, but not gram positives.

It also differentiate lactose fermenters from non-lactor fermenters.

If the colonoy turns pink it is a lactose fermenter.
What are some of the main lactose fermenters?
What is the mneumonic for lactose fermenters?
What are some good examples of non-lactose fermenters?
What is the mneumonic for non-lactose fermenters?
What is good examples of non-lactose fermenters without flagella and also without H2S?
What does the TSI test for and hao is it indicated?
The presence of H2S produces a black pigment in the TSI test.
What are some good examples of Non-lactose fermenters that do have flagella and do produse H2S?
What would Salmonella and Proteus do on the TSI test and why?
They would produce a black pigment on the TSI test due to their production of H2S
What are the distinguishing characteristics of Escherichia coli?
Gram negative rod
Facultative anaerobic
oxidase negative
Lactose fermenter
What is another type of medium, besides MacConkey's, that distinguishes lactose from non-lactose fermenting?
EMB - eosin-methylene blue agar
What color does E. coli turn a TSI test?
Why does E.Coli turn a TSI test yellow and what does this mean?
it mean it fermented all of the sugars in there and there is lots of acid produced. Thus there is a lot of change in the pH indicator. On TSI (triple sugar iron) this is known as acid over acid over gas H2S negative
What is the reservoir for E. coli?

enterohemorrhagic strains?
Human colon

enterhemorrhagic - bovine feces
What are the two most common organisms found in our colon?
1. Bacteroides
2. E. coli
What is the number one cause of UTI's in females?
E. Coli
What diseases does E. coli cause?
-Neonatal septicemia nd meningitis
What type of E. coli causes the neonatal meningitis?
K1 capsule type
What is the three most common causes of neonatal meningitis?
1. Strep Agalactica
2. E. Coli with K1 capsule
3. Listeria
What is the mechanism by which E. Coli causes septicemia?
Enters through catheter or IV and endotoxing triggers shock
What is the cause of traveler's diarrhea?
ETEC (enterotoxigenic E. coli)
wher is ETEC found?
in the small intestine
What is the mechanism of ETEC?
release toxins which increse cAMP in the cells which increases fluid release.
What are the two most common types of infantile diarrhea?
1. rotovirus
2. EPEC (enteropathogenic E. Coli
Does ETEC invade?
How will a child with enteropathogenic E. Coli look?
very dehydrated
Where does EIEC invade?
what does it stand for?
Enteroinvasive E. coli invades the LARGE BOWEL
What other organism is EIEC very similar to?
Shigella dysenteriae
What is found in the stool sample of EIEC?
blood, pus, mucus
What E. Coli is associated with hamburger meat and toxin does it produce?
EHEC (enterhemorrhagic E. coli)
Also known as VEROTOXIN producing E. coli (VPEC)
What is the most common serotype of EHEC?
What diseases does EHEC produce?
hemorrhagic colitis and Hemolytic uremia syndrome
What distinguishes EHEC from shigellosis?
Shigellosis produces a fever while EHEC assoc. diseases there is NO FEVER.
What serotype of E.coli is accuired from hamburger meat?
What are the distinguishing characteristics of Shigella?
Gran Negative Rod
Non-lactose fermenter
What does Shigella cause?
bacillary dysentery
What is the reservior for shigella?
HUMAN COLON ONLY (no animal carriers)
What is Shigella notorious for?
Spreading throughout daycares
What is the route of transmission?
What type of E. coli is serotype O157:H7?
What are the three activities of shiga toxin?
entertoxic - fluid produced
cytotoxic - kills cells
neurotoxic - some effect on the nervous system
Why does Shigella spread throughout daycare centers so quickly?
It only takes 1-10 organisms to start infection
What is the treatment for shigella?
mild cases are self limiting
make sure that kids are washing hands after using the bathroom
What is the mechanism of shigella toxin?
AB component toxin - inhibits protein synthesis by clipping 60S ribosomal subunit
What are the identifying characteristics of all Klebsiella?
Gram-negative rod
GIGANTIC capsule
What are the major distinguishing characteristics of Klebsiella pneumoniae?
Gram-negative rod
Gigantic capsule
Lactose fermenting colonies
Mucoid looking material
How would you distinguish someone with pneumonia from Strep. Pneumonia from pneumonia from Klebsiella Pneumonia?
The Strep pneumonia will be producing a Rusty sputum with chills while the Klebsiella patient will be very clammy because Klebsiella will result in an endotoxin shock. The Klebsiella patient will also producs a currant jelly sputum.
What tests would you perform on a patient that comes in with pneumonia to distinguish Strep. pneum. from kleb. pneum.?
Blood agar
macConkeys Agar
Gram stain
What would you treat Strep pneumo with?
Who is likely to infect and what makes Klebsiella hard to treat?
Klebsiella infects old, alcoholic, diabetics and forms abcesses.
What is the prevention for Klebsiella?
good catheter care; limit catheter use
What are the distinguishing characteristics for all Salmonella?
Gram - negative Rod (Enterobacteriaceae)
Non-lactose fermenter
Produces H2S
What are the dieseases caused by Salmonella?
Enteric or Typhoid Fever (Salmonella Typhi)
What is one identification difference between Shigella and salmonella?
Salmonella has flagella while Shigella has no flagella
What are the distinguishing characteristics for Salmonella typhi?
Gram-negative rod
highly motile
non-lactose fermenting
Produces H2S
Sensitive to acid
What disease does Salmonella typhi cause?
Typhoid/Enteric Fever
What is the reservoir for Salmonella typhi and what other organism is this similar to?
Humans only (no aminals)
This is the same as shigella.
What is the mode of transmission?
Who is especially succeptible to Salmonella
people with SICKLE CELLS
What is the path of infection for this organism?
Ingestion - enters small intestine - penetrates the small intestine and goes into PEYER'S PATCHES and MESENTERIC LYMPH NODES - spreads through blood stremam to the LIVER, SPLEEN, and RES system (causing hte fever). Most importantly, it goes to the GALL BLADDER.
What will you see in a person with Salmonella typhi?
increased size of liver, spleen
been to place with contaminated water/food.
What is the pathogenesis of Salmonella Typhi?
Enters, spreads to PEYERS PATCHES, spread throughout body, causes fever, go into macrophages
Clinically, what is one sign of Salmonella typhi?
Rose spot
How is the ty21 vaccing given and what type of vaccing is it?
it is an attenuated vaccine and it is given orally
What are the Non-typhoidal Salmonella?
Salmonella enteritidis
Salmonella typhimiuium
other species
What are the distinguishing characteristics of Non- typhoidal Salmonellae?
Gram-negative rods
non-lactose fermenting
Produce H2S
have flagella
Where are the Non-typhoidal salmonella found?
digestive tracts of animals
What animals especially have Salmonella?
chickens and turtles
What is the main type of salmonella from other animals such as chicken or turtles?
Salmonella enteritidis
What are the distinguishing features of yersinia organisms?
gran -negative rods
Oxidase wise, what is one distinguishing characteristic of all enterobacteriaceae?
oxidse negative
What is the disease yersinia pestis causes?
The Bubonic Plague
What are the distinguishing characteristics of yersinia Pestis?
Gram negative
bipolar staining
facultative intracellular parasite
Coagulase positive
Why must you be careful when handeling yersinia?
specimens and cultures are hazardous
What is the reservoir for yersinia pestis?
flea, rodent
What is the deadly form of yersinis pestis?
What disease does proteus cause?
What are the distinguishing characteristics of all proteus organisms?
Gram negative rod
peritrichous flagella (flagella all over cell)
Non-lactose fermenting
Urease positive
What does Proteus look similar to under the microscope?
What are two of the most identifying facts about proteus?
IT SWARMS ON MEDIA (due to its high motility)
What happens to the urine in a proteus infection.
The pH is raised due to the UREASE, whish causes staghorn renal calculi
Proteus serogroups are used in the diagnosis of a disease?
What are these serotypes and what do they diagnose?
The OX strains of Proteus vulgaris cross react with antidodies from most rickettsial diseases?
What is the name of the test used to test for rickettsial disease with Proteus strains?
Weil-Felix test
What is the name of the organism that causes cholera?
Vibrio cholera
What are the distinguishing characteristics of the Vibrio genus?
Gram negative curved rod with polar flagella
Oxidase positive
What family is the Vibrio genus in?
What are the distinguishing characteristics of Vibrio Cholera?
"Shooting Star" motility
Oxidase positive
Growth on alkaline but not acidic media
What media does Vibrio cholera grow on?
TCBS = Thiosulfate Citrate Bile Salt sucrose medium
What is the type of Vibrio cholerae that is presnet in South America now?
Vibrio cholerae with antigen O1, biotype El Tor, and sub-serotype Inaba
How does Vibreo cholerae cause it's disease (pathogenesis)?
Chelera enterotxin ADP Rybosylates Gs alpha which activates adenylate cyclase, which leads to increased cAMP, which leads to and efflux of Cl- and water (diarrhea)
What other toxin is the cholera enterotxin similar to?
E. coli LT
What is the reservoir and how is vibrio cholerae spread?
reservoir is in human colon and it is spread via the fecal-oral route.
What is the clinical presentation of Vibrio cholerae infection?
Rice water stools
tremendous fluid loss
Where is Vibrio parahaemolyticus found?
undercooked or raw seafood
Does vibrio cholerae invade?
No, it just sits there and produces its toxin
What are the three types of vibrio organisms?
Vibreo cholerae
Vibrio parahaemolyticus
Vibrio vulnificus
What does Vibrio vulnificus cause?
cellulitis, gastroenteritis, and septicemia
Where is Vibrio vulnificus found?
Brackish (slightly salty) water, oysters
What are the distinguishing characteristics of pasteurella multocida?
Gram Negative rods
Facultative anaerobic rods
Where is Pasturella multocida found?
Mouths of many animals, especially cats and dogs
What does pasturella multocida cause?
cellulitis and lymphadenitis
What are the distinguishing characteristics of all haemophilus organisms?
Gram-negative, pleomorphic rod
requires growth factors
What are some organisms that have very importsant capsules and why are they important?
Strep pneumonia - Vaccine contains 23 types of capsule and the capsule reacts in the quellung test

Klebsiella - large capsule makes it very mucoid as it grows

N. Meningitidis - YWCA are the 4 different types of capsules
What are the distinguishing characteristics of Haemophilus influenzae?
X and V
What is the most important capsule type of haemophilus influenzae?
Capsule Type B
What organism could you get if bitten by a cat or dog?
Pasturella multicida
it grows in the mouths of dogs and cats
What now keeps Haemophilus influenzae from being a major cause of neonatal meningitis?
HIB vaccine which is given at 2, 4, 6, 18 months and 5 years
What is growth factor X?
What is growth factor V?
What are the two situation in which H. influenzae will grow?
it will grow on chocolate agar and around S. aureus on Blood Agar
What is the most important virulence factor of Haemophilus influenzae?
polysaccharide capsule
What is the dangerous type of H. influenzae?
type B Haemophilus influenzae
What diseases does H. influenzae cause?
otitis media
What is the satellite phenomenom?
Haemophilus influenzae grown near S. aureus on Blood Agar because S. aureus supplies the needed X and V factors
What type of H. influenzae causes otitis media?
Non-typable Haemophilus influenzae
What is unizue about non-typeable haemophilus influenzae?
it does not have a capsule and it causes otitis media
What three organisms that cause otitis media?
Strep Pneumonia
Moraxella Catorrhallis
Non-typeable Haemophilus Influenzae
What is the treatment for an infection with Non-typeable H. Influenzae?
you cannot use penicillin. you must use something other than a Beta lactamase antibiotic
What are the two main organisms that have acquired Beta-bactimase genes?
Niesseria Gonnorhea
Non-typeable Haemophilus Influenzae
What does Haemophilus ducreyi cause?
soft chancroid
(Genital ulcers)
(Vinerial disease)
How are all Bacteroides characterized?
Gram-negative rod
Modified LPS with reduced activity
What are the three obligate anaerobic organisms?
What does Actinomyces cause?
lumpy jaw
What does Clostridium cause?
tetanus, botulism, gangrene, pseudomembranous entercolitis
What is the most common organism in our colon?
Bacteroides fragilis
What are the distinguishing characteristics of Bacteroides fragilis?
Gram-negative rod
How does Bacteroides fragilis spread from the oclon?
bowel defects, surgery, or trauma
Where is Bacteroides fragilis found?
It is endogenous. it is found within our colon at all times.
What does bacteroides cause?
What is the treatment for Bacteroides fragilis?
What bacteroides is found in the mouth?
Bacteriodes melaninogenicus
What is another name for bacteriodes melaninogenicus?
Prevotella memalinogenica
Why is bacteroides melaninogenicus/prevotella melaninogenica not found in the intestine?
They are bile sensitive and thus cannot survive there
What does bacteroides malaninogenicus cause?
abcesses in the mouth
What are the three important spirochetes?
What does Treponema cause?
what does Borrelia cause?
Lime disease
What does Leptospira cause?
Wiles disease
What are the distinguishing characteristics of treponema?
Spirochetes, Poorly visible on gram stain but basically gram-negative
Describe the general structure of spirochetes.
spiral with axial filament (endoflagellum)
How is trepnema grown in the lab and why is it grown like this?
it must be grown in living tissue because it is an obligate pathogen (but not intracellular). It is usually grown in rabbit testes
What type of disease does
vinerial disease
What are three main organisms that cause vinerial disease?
niesseria gonorrhea, haemophilus ducrayi, treponema pallidum
What are the three stages of syphilis?
Primary, secondary, tertiary
What are the major characteristics of a primary syphilis?
hard, nontender chancre at site of inoculation
When is a person with syphilis most contagious?
primary stage of syphilis
How long does it take for a primary chancre to heal?
3-6 weeks
What are the common characteristics of secondary syphilis?
Maculopapular (often copper colored) rash on skin including palms and soles, Flat wart-like perianal condylomata lata, mucous membrane lesions, both highly infectious
What are the characteristics of tertiary syphilis?
gummaa, aortitis, or central nervous system
What perprotionof people with syphilis what are the odds that she will get tertiary syphilis
Is syphilis passed from mother of newborn?
What are the consiquences of congenitial syphilis?
stillbirth and multiple other obnormalities (keratitis, 8th nerve deafness, notched teeth, and sometimes asymptomatic until age 2
What are snuffles?
clear fluid running from the nose of newborn. This contains syphilis organisms and thus can diagnose syphilis.
How do you diagnose syphilis?
get a scraping of a primary chancre and look under a dark field microscope
What is the treatment for syphilis?
What are the laboratory tests for syphilis?
VDRL or RPR test
What is the VDRL test?
it tests for syphilis by placing antigen in with a possible syphilis sample to see if syphilis antibody will clump the antigen. If it clumps the antigen then it is positive
Why might the make the VDRL results negative when the patient actually is infected with antibody?
penicillin administration will make the VDRL test negative
What is the true test for syphilis?
FTA-ABS test
What does FTA-ABS stand for?
Fluorescent Treponemal Antibody-Absorption
Why would you perform the FTA-ABS test?
The VDRA and RPR tests are screening tests and thus are not specific. The FTA-ABS test is more specific for syphilis and thus is a confirmation to the VDRA and RPR tests.
What are the general characteristics of Borrelia?
Larger spirochetes, Gram-negative, Microaerophilic
What organism causes Lyme disease?
Borrelia burgdorferi
How is Borrelia burgdorferi transmitted to humans?
deer tick
What genus of tick transmits Borrelia burgdorferi?
Where is lyme disease usually found?
white footed mouse and white tailed deer
Clinically, what does the primary stage of lyme disease look like?
spreading annular skin lesion with an erythematous leading edge and central clearing, it looks like “A BULL’S EYE”
What is the name of the clinical symptoms of the primary stage of Lyme disease?
Erythema chronicum migrans
clinically, What is the secondary stage of lyme disease like?
this involves neurological aspects
What is the tertiary stage of lyme disease known for?
a very severe arthritis
What are the general characteristics of Leptospira?
Spirochetes – thin, with hooks, Too thin to visualize, but gram-negative cell envelope
How is Liptospira interrogans spread?
animal urine in water
What are the distinguishing characteristics of Leptospira interrogans?
Spirochetes with tight terminal hooks.
What is the disease caused by Leptospira interrogans?
What is the triad for liptospirosis?
renal failure, meningitis, myocarditis

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