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Chapter 8


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Neuroleptic agents
drugs used to treat psychosis, schizophrenia
Behavioral therapy
treatment to decrease/stop unwanted behavior
spinal cord/bone marrow
order or coordination
abnormal sensation of numbness and tingling w/o objective cause
Multiple sclerosis
disease of CNS characterized by demyelination (deterioration of myelin sheath) of nerve fibers, w/ episodes of neurologic dysfunction (exacerbation) followed by recovery (remission)
Bulimia nervosa
eating disorder characterized by binge eating followed by efforts to limit digestion through induced vomiting, use of laxatives, or excessive exercise
Cerebral embolism
obstruction of blood vessel in brain by embolus transported through circulation
Myasthenia gravis
autoimmune disorder that affects neuromuscular junction causing progressive decrease in muscle strength; activity resumes and strength returns after period of rest
Extracranial MRA
magnetic resonance image of neck to visualize carotid artery
stupor, sleep
stiffening-jerking; major motor seizure involving all muscle groups; previously termed grand mal (big bad) seizure
Grandiose delusion
person's false belief that he/she possesses great wealth, intelligence, or power
treatment of psychiatric disorders using verbal and nonverbal interaction w/ patients, individually or in group, employing specific actions and techniques
exaggerated, unfounded feeling of well-being
Thought disorder
thought that lacks clear processing/logical direction
Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA)
magnetic resonance imaging of blood vessels, for detecting pathologic conditions such as thrombosis and atherosclerosis
exaggerated fear or sensitivity
impairment of intellectual function characterized by memory loss, disorientation, and confusion
Spinal nerves
31 pairs of nerves arising from spinal cord
convolutions (mounds) of cerebral hemispheres
Tactile stimulation
evoking response by touching
recording of various aspects of sleep (eg, eye and muscle movements, respiration, and EEG patterns) to diagnose sleep disorders
Diskectomy (discectomy)
removal of herniated disk; often done percutaneously
state of mental confusion caused by disturbances in cerebral function; many causes include fever, shock, or drug overdose
Spina bifida
congenital defect in spinal column characterized by absence of vertebral arches, often resulting in pouching of spinal membranes or tissue
Mental retardation
condition of subaverage intelligence characterized by IQ of 70 or below, resulting in ability to adapt to normal social activities
deep grooves in brain
SPECT brain scan (single proton emission computed tomography)
scan combining nuclear medicine and computed tomography to produce images of brain after administration of radioactive isotopes
region of brain that serves as relay b/w cerebrum, cerebellum, and spinal cord; responsible for breathing, heart rate, and body temperature; three levels are mesencephalon (midbrain), pons, and medulla oblongata
disorder affecting CNS, characterized by recurrent seizures
control center for autonomic nervous system located below thalamus (diencephalon)
cerebrum (largest part of brain)
entire brain
restless, dissatisfied mood
temporal lobe
portion that lies below frontal lobe, responsible for hearing, taste, and smell
use of microscope to dissect minute structures during surgery
Peripheral nervous system (PNS)
nerves that branch from CNS, including nerves of brain (cranial nerves) and spinal cord (spinal nerves)
mental condition characterized by distortion of reality resulting in inability to communicate/ function w/in one's environment
Electroencephalogram (EEG)
record of minute electrical impulses of brain, used to identify neurologic conditions that affect brain function and level of consciousness
x-ray of spinal cord made after intraspinal injections of contrast medium
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
condition resulting from extremely traumatic experience, injury, or illness that leaves sufferer w/ persistent thoughts and memories of ordeal; may occur after war, violent personal assault, physical or sexual abuse, serious accident, or natural disaster; symptoms include feelings of fear, detachment, exaggerated startle response, restlessness, nightmares, and avoidance of anything or any one who triggers painful recollections
Migraine headache
paroxysmal (sudden, periodic) attacks of mostly unilateral headache often accompanied by disordered vision, nausea, or vomiting, lasting hours/days, and caused by dilation of arteries
Antianxiety agents/anxiolytic agents
drugs used to reduce anxiety
Cerebral palsy (CP)
condition of motor dysfunction caused by damage to cerebrum during development/injury at birth; characterized by partial paralysis and lack of muscle coordination
three dimensional or solid
agent that counteracts depression
Huntington chorea/ Huntington disease (HD)
hereditary disease of CNS characterized by bizarre involuntary body movements and progressive dementia
Reflex testing
test performed to observe body's response to stimulus
disease of brain chemistry causing distorted cognitive and emotional perception of one's environment; symptoms include distortions of normal function such as disorganized thought, delusions, hallucinations, and catatonic behavior; negative symptoms (normal rxns missing in persons w/ schizophrenia) include flat affect, apathy, and w/drawal from reality
Sensory nerves
nerves that conduct impulses from body parts and carry sensory info to brain; also called afferent nerves
agent that induces sleep
Parasympathetic nervous system
division of ANS that is most active in ordinary conditions; it counterbalances effects of sympathetic system by restoring body to restful state after stressful experience
Flaccid paralysis
defective (flabby) or absent muscle control caused by nerve lesion
partial paralysis of R/L half of body
sudden, transient disturbances in brain function resulting from abnormal firing of nerve impulses (may/may not be associated w/ convulsion)
Computed tomography
computed tomographic x-ray images of head used to visualize abnormalities, such as brain tumors and malformations
Intracranial MRA
magnetic resonance image of head to visualize vessels of circulation of Willis (common site of cerebral aneurysm, stenosis, or occlusion)
excision of part of skull to approach brain
Cerebral aneurysm
dilation of blood vessel in brain
meninges (membrane)
Lumbar puncture (LP)
introduction of specialized needle into spine in lumbar region for diagnostic or therapeutic purpose, such as to obtain cerebrospinal fluid for testing; also called spinal tap
Cerebral arteriosclerosis
hardening of arteries of brain
Persecutory delusion
person's false belief that someone is plotting against him/her w/ intent to harm
paralysis on one side of body
Motor nerves
nerves that conduct motor impulses from brain to muscles and glands; also called efferent nerves
Positron emission tomography (PET)
technique combining nuclear medicine and computed tomography to produce images of brain anatomy and corresponding physiology; used to study stroke, Alzheimer disease, epilepsy, metabolic brain disorders, chemistry of nerve transmissions in brain, and so on; provides greater accuracy than SPECT but is used less often b/c of cost and limited availability of radioisotopes
agent that prevents/lessens convulsions
paralysis from waist down
Motor deficit
loss or impairment of muscle function
thalamus (a room)
Stereotactic (stereotaxic) frame
mechanical device used to localize a point in space targeting a precise site
seizure involving brief loss of consciousness w/o motor involvement; previously termed petit mal (little bad) seizure
agent that relieves pain
benign tumor of coverings of brain (meninges)
incision into skull to approach brain
treatment of malignancies, infections, and other diseases with chemical agents to destroy selected cells or impair their ability to reproduce
abnormal impulse (attraction) toward
psychologic condition in which anxiety is prominent
Somn/o, somn/i, hypn/o
sleep disorder characterized by sudden, uncontrollable need to sleep, attack of paralysis (cataplexy), and dreams intruding while awake (hypnagogic hallucinations)
seizure involving only limited areas of brain w/ localized symptoms
agent that quiets nervousness
Evoked potentials
minute electrical waves that are sorted out of ongoing EEG activity to diagnose auditory, visual, and sensory pathway disorders
Spastic paralysis
stiff and awkward muscle control caused by CNS disorder
inflammation of spinal cord
Sympathetic nervous system
division of ANS concerned primarily w/ preparing body in stressful or emergency situations
tumor of glial cells graded by degree of malignancy
pain along course of nerve
frontal lobe
anterior section of ea. cerebral hemisphere responsible for voluntary muscle movement and personality
abnormal accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid in ventricles of brain as result of developmental anomalies, infection, injury/tumor
to pull together; type of seizure that causes series of sudden, involuntary contractions of muscles
Deep tendon reflexes (DTR)
involuntary muscle contraction after percussion at a tendon (eg, patella, Achilles) indicating function; pos. findings are either no reflex reponse or an exaggerated response to stimulus; numbers are often used to record responses: no response; 1+ diminished response; 2+ normal response; 3+ more brisk than average response; 4+ hyperactive response
Panic disorder (PD)
disorder of sudden, recurrent attacks of intense feelings, including physical symptoms that mimic heart attack (rapid heart rate, chest pain, shortness of breath, chills, sweating, and dizziness), w/ general sense of loss of control/feeling that death is imminent; often progresses to agoraphobia
Spondyl/o, vertebr/o
Magnetic resonance imaging
nonionizing imaging technique using magnetic fields (MRI) and radio frequency waves to visualize anatomic structures ( soft tissue) such as tissues of brain and spinal cord
Cranial nerves
12 pairs of nerves arising from brain
ganglion (knot)
inflammation of gray matter of spinal cord caused by virus, often resulting in spinal and muscle deformity and paralysis
lg.est portion of brain; divided into R and L halves, known as cerebral hemispheres, that are connected by bridge of nerve fibers called corpus callosum; lobes of cerebrum are named after skull bones they underlie
slight paralysis
Alzheimer disease
disease of structural changes in brain resulting in irreversible deterioration that progresses from forgetfulness and disorientation to loss of all intellectual functions, total disability, and death
Manic depression bipolar disorder (BD)
affective disorder characterized by mood swings of mania and depression (extreme up and down states)
Herpes zoster
viral disease affecting peripheral nerves characterized by painful blisters that spread over skin following affected nerves, unilateral; aka shingles
Autonomic nervous system (ANS)
nerves that carry involuntary impulses to smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and various glands
ventricle (belly/pouch)
Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)
most common anxiety disorder, characterized by chronic, excessive, uncontrollable worry about everyday problems; affects ability to relax/concentrate but does not interfere w/ social interactions/employment; physical symptoms include muscle tension, trembling, twitching, fatigue, headaches, nausea, and insomnia
lack of interest/display of emotion
deep sleep; general term referring to levels of decreased consciousness w/ varying responsiveness; common method of assessment is Glasgow coma scale
parietal lobe
portion posterior to frontal lobe, responsible for sensations such as pain, temperature, and touch
portion of CNS contained w/in cranium
Babinski sign/reflex
pathologic response to stimulation of plantar surface of foot; pos. sign is indicated when toes dorsiflex (curl upward)
Cognitive therapy
treatment to change unwanted patterns of thinking
spine (thorn)
Cerebral angiogram
x-ray of blood vessels in brain after intracarotid injection of contrast medium
Psychotropic drugs
medications used to treat mental illnesses
Cerebrovascular disease
disorder resulting from change w/in one/more blood vessels of brain
Attentive-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
dysfunction characterized by consistent hyperactivity, distractibility, and lack of control over impulses, which interferes w/ ability to function normally at school, home or work
st. of unresponsiveness to one's outside environment, including muscle rigidity, staring, and inability to communicate
Cerebrovascualr accident (CVA)/stroke
damage to brain caused by cerebrovascular disease; eg, occlusion of blood vessel by embolus or thrombus or intracranial hemorrhage after rupture of aneurysm
cerebral cortex
outer layer of cerebrum consisting of gray matter, responsible for higher mental functions
pain that follows pathway of sciatic nerve caused by compression/trauma of nerve or its roots
Light therapy
use of specialized illuminating light boxes and visors to treat seasonal affective disorder
cerebellum (little brain)
persistent belief that has no basis in reality
increased sensitivity to stimulation such as touch/pain
Stereotactic (stereotaxi) radiosurgery
radiation treatment to inactivate malignant lesions, using multiple, precise external radiation beams focused on target w/ aid of stereotactic frame and imaging such as CT, MRI, or angiography; used to treat inoperable brain tumors and other lesions
inability to locate a sensation properly, such as to locate a point touched on body
Flat affect
significantly dulled emotional tone or outward reaction
Anorexia nervosa
sever disturbance in eating behavior caused by abnormal perceptions about one's body weight, evidenced by overwhelming fear of becoming fat that results in refusal to eat and body weight well below normal
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)
anxiety disorder featuring unwanted, senseless obsessions accompanied by repeated compulsions; can interfere w/ all aspects of person's daily life, for example, thought that door is not locked w/ repetitive checking to make sure it is locked, or thoughts that one's body has been contaminated cuasing repetitive washing
surgical repair of a nerve
Sensory deficit
loss or impairment of sensation
inflammation of meninges
any of many types of loss of neurologic function involving interpretation of sensory information
Herniated disk
protrusion of degenerated/fragmented intervertebral disk so that nucleus pulposus protrudes, causing compression on nerve root
spinal fusion
inability to judge form of obj. by touch
inability to speak
Parkinson disease/parkinsonism
slowly progressive degeneration of nerves in brain characterized by tremor, rigidity of muscles, and slow movements (bradykinesia), occurring later in life
Transcranial sonogram
image made by sending ultrasound beams through skull to assess blood flow in intracranial vessels; used in diagnosis and management of stroke and head trauma
formation of thoughts/ideas; for example, suicidal ideation (thoughts of suicide)
x-ray imaging
central nervous system (CNS)
brain and spinal cord
paralysis of all four limbs
Transient ischemic attack (TIA)
brief episode of loss of blood flow to brain; caused by partial occlusion that results in temporary neurologic deficit (impairment); often precedes a CVA
Substance abuse disorders
mental disorders resulting from abuse of substances such as drugs, alcohol, or other toxins, causing personal and social dysfunction; identified by abused substance, such as alcohol abuse, amphetamine abuse, opioid (narcotic) abuse, and polysubstance abuse
occipital lobe
portion posterior to parietal and temporal lobes, responsible for vision
series of interconnected cavities w/in cerebral hemispheres and brainstem filled w/ cerebrospinal fluid
Major depression/major depressive illness/clinical depression/major affective disorder/unipolar disorder
disorder causing periodic disturbances in mood that affect concentration, sleep, activity, appetite, and social behavior; characterized by feelings of worthlessness, fatigue, and loss of interest
Vertebral lamina
flattened posterior portion of vertebral arch
false perception of senses for which there is no reality, most commonly hearing/seeing things
developmental disability characterized by difficulty understanding written or spoken words, sent.s, or paragraphs, affecting reading, spelling, and self-expression
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
plasmalike clear fluid circulating in and around brain and spinal cord
milder affective disorder characterized by chronic depression
temporary or permanent loss of motor control
Cerebral thrombosis
presence of stationary clot in blood vessel of brain
three membranes that cover brain and spinal cord, consisting of dura mater, pia mater, and arachnoid mater
Sleep apnea
periods of breathing cessation (10 seconds or more) that occur during sleep, often causing snoring
excision of one or more laminae of vertebrae to approach spinal cord
emotional feeling/mood
Thalamus (diencephalon)
each of two gray matter nuclei deep w/in brain responsible for relaying sensory info to cortex
preoccupation w/ thoughts of disease and concern that one is suffering from serious condition that persists despite medical reassurance to contrary
Spinal cord
column of nervous tissue from brainstem through vertebrae, responsible for nerve conduction to and from brain and body
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)
electrical shock applied to brain to induce convulsions; used to treat severely depressed patients
developmental disability commonly appearing during first three years of life, resulting from neurologic disorder affecting brain function, evidenced by difficulties w/ verbal and nonverbal communication, and inability to relate to anything beyond oneself in social interactions; persons w/ autism often exhibit body movements such as rocking and repetitive hand movements; they commonly become preoccupied w/ observing parts of small obj.s/moving parts/performing meaningless rituals
Seasonal affective disorder (SAD)
affective disorder marked by episodes of depression that most often occur during fall and winter and remit in spring
shallow grooves that separate gyri
Phren/o, psych/o, thym/o
portion of brain located below occipital lobes of cerebrum, responsible for control and coordination of skeletal muscles
exaggerated fear of specific obj./circumstance that causes anxiety and panic; named for obj./circumstance, such as agoraphobia (marketplace), claustrophobia (confinement), and acrophobia (high places)
inflammation involving two or more nerves, often caused by nutritional deficiency such as lack thiamine
Radiation therapy
treatment of neoplastic disease using ionizing radiation to impede proliferation of malignant cells
Nuclear medicine imaging
radionuclide organ imaging
st. of abnormal elation and increased activity
difficulty speaking
inflammation of brain
Cerebral atherosclerosis
condition of lipid (fat) buildup w/in blood vessels of brain

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