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Chapter 7 (A Tour of the Cell)


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open system
organism that interacts and is affected by its environment
light microscope (LM)
basic microscope, light goes through specimen then lens then eye
how much larger an organism appears compared to its actual size
resolving power
clarity of image
subcellular structures
electron microscope (EM)
electrons pass through specimen
transmission electron microscope (TEM)
uses electromagnet lenses; focused onto a screen for viewing; used mainly for internal ultrastructure of cells
scanning electron microscope (SEM)
used mainly for detailed study of the surface of a specimen; 3D appearance: electrons become excited; specimen usually coated in gold
the study of cell structure
What is the objective of cell fractionation?
to separate organelles so functions can be studied
most powerful kind of centrifuge (used in cell fractionation)
disruption of cells (first step in cell fractionation)
large structures packed at bottom of test tube after being spun in centrifuge at various intervals of time
smaller cell parts suspended in liquid above pellet
What organisms are composed of prokaryotic cells? Eukaryotic?
prokaryotic: bacteria only
eukaryotic: all others
A prokaryotic cell does not contain a _____.
DNA is enclosed in this in prokaryotic cells (but there is no membrane between DNA and the rest of the cell).
A eukaryotic cell has a ________ __________ enclosed in a _________ ___________.
true nucleus enclosed in a membrane envelope
region between nucleus and membrane
makes up cytoplasm; semifluid in which organelles are suspended
What is the relation in size between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells?
eukaryotic cells are 10 times larger (in general)
plasma membrane
selective barrier allowing oxygen, nutrients and wastes to pass into the cell in order to provide sufficient service to the cell
A cell's surface area must be _______ than it's volume.
What do internal membranes do?
partition the cell into compartments
Biological membrane have a double layer of ______________. ___________ are embedded into membranes.
double layer of phospholipids

proteins are imbedded in membranes (enzymes too)

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