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Medical Terminology - Chapter 4

Terms

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Pancytopenia
Deficiency of all cells (blood cells).
Ultrasonography
The prefix ultra- means beyond or excessive; sonography is the process of recording sound waves. Ultrasonography is the use of high frequency sound waves that are beyond the range of normal hearing to produce a record or picture of an organ or tissue.
Precancerous
Pertaining to occurring before a malignant condition.
Macrocephaly
Condition of a larger than normal head.
Autoimmune disease
Antibodies that are produced against an individual's own normal cells.
Synthesis
Literally, to put (-thesis) together (syn-).
Intercostal
Pertaining to between the ribs.
Benign
Non-cancerous.
Metamorphosis
Condition of change of shape or form.
Anoxia
Without oxygen.
Syndactyly
Fusion of fingers or toes; a congenital anomaly.
Neoplasm
New growth.
Hyperglycemia
Condition of excessive or high blood pressure; diabetes mellitus.
Malignant
Cancerous; harmful.
Symbiosis
Close association between organisms of different species or a state in which two people are emotionally dependent on each other.
Hypertrophy
Condition of increased development when individual cells increase in size.
Metacarpal bones
Hand bones.
Antigen
Substance (protein) that stimulates the production of antibodies.
Congenital anomaly
Abnormality present at birth; birth defect.
Anabolism
Process of building up proteins in cells.
Apnea
Without breathing.
Percutaneous
Pertaining to through the skin.
Euthyroid
Normal thyroid function.
Endotracheal
Pertaining to within the trachea.
Adrenal glands
Endocrine glands above the kidney.
Anteflexion
Bending forward.
Paralysis
Destruction of nerve tissue leading to loss of sensation or motion in a part of the body.
Bradycardia
Slow heart beat, usually less than 60 beats per minute.
Connective tissue
Tissue that supports and binds other tissues and parts. Examples are bones, cartilage, muscle, or fibrous tissues.
Epithelium
Layer of cells covering the external surface of the body and lining the hollow tubes within the body.
Euphoria
Condition of exaggerated well-being ("good feeling").
Malaise
General feeling of bodily discomfort.
Polymorphonuclear
Pertaining to a nucleus with several or many shapes. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes are white blood cells with a multilobed nucleus.
Contraindication
A factor that prohibits the administration of a drug or procedure in the care of a patient.
Hypoglycemia
Condition of decreased sugar in the blood; low blood sugar.
Unilateral
Pertaining to one side.
Tachypnea
Rapid breathing.
Transfusion
Literally, to pour (-fusion) across (trans-); transference of blood from person to another.
Ectopic pregnancy
A pregnancy that is outside the uterus.
Microscope
Instrument to view small projects.
Prolapse
Sliding forward or downward.
Exophthalmos
Eyeballs that protrude from their sockets; associated with hyperthyroidism.
Analysis
Separation of a substance into various parts.
Postmortem
After death.
Parathyroid glands
Four endocrine glands on the posterior (dorsal) region of the thyroid gland.
Infracostal
Pertaining to below the ribs.
Remission
Literally, to send back to good health; disappearance of disease symptoms.
Subacute
Between acute (sharp, sudden, severe) and chronic (lasting over a long period of time with little change of symptoms).
Dyspnea
Difficult breathing.
Antitoxin
Substance produced against a toxin (poison); an antibody.
Dialysis
Separation of nitrogenous wastes from the blood when the kidneys no longer function.
Suprapubic
Pertaining to above the pelvic bone.
Retroflexion
Bending backward.
Antibiotic
Against life (germ life). Antibiotics are drugs given to combat bacteria.
Polyneuritis
Inflammation of many nerves.
Postpartum
After birth.
Hypodermic injection
Placement of a needle below the skin.
Bifurcation
Branching or forking into two parts.
Endoscope
Instrument to visually examine within the body; bronchoscope.
Syndrome
Group of symptoms that occur together indicating a particular condition or disorder.
Retroperitoneal
Pertaining to behind the peritoneum (membrane surrounding the abdominal cavity).
Diarrhea
Diarrhea is the frequent passage of watery, loose stools.
Neonatal
Pertaining to a newborn infant.
Insomniac
Pertaining to without sleep; an insomniac is a person who cannot sleep.
Hyperplasia
Condition of increased formation of cells.
Bilateral
Pertaining to both or two sides.
Hemiglossectomy
Removal (resection) of half the tongue.
Ante cibum (a.c.)
Before meals.
Subcutaneous
Pertaining to under the skin.
Diameter
Distance between opposite parts on the circumference of a structure.
Metastasis
Spread of a malignant tumor beyond its original location to a distant site.
Transurethral
Pertaining to across or through the urethra.
Periosteum
Membrane surrounding a bone.
Relapse
Sliding or falling back; as in recurrence of symptoms or decline after apparent recovery.
Antibody
Proteins made by white blood cells to destroy antigens.
Adductor
Muscle that leads a limb toward the body.
Abductor
Muscle that leads a limb away from the body.
Endocardium
The inner lining of the heart.
Dysplasia
Condition of abnormal formation.
Symmetry
Equality of parts, literally measured together.
Pseudocyesis
False pregnancy.
Contralateral
Affecting the opposite side of a part of the body.
Prenatal
Pertaining to before birth.
Recombinant DNA
Insertion of a gene (region of DNA) from an organism into the DNA of another organism.
Antepartum
Before birth.
Antisepsis
Destruction of microorganisms to prevent infection.
Dehydration
Excessive loss of water.
Prodrome
Symptom that appears before the onset of a more serious an illness. An example of a prodrome is the fever that signals the onset of a viral illness.
Symphysis
Literally, to grow together.
Intravenous
Pertaining to within a vein.

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