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Psychology-Chapter 1 Study Guide


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a psychologist who analyzes how organisms learn or modify their behavior based on their response to events in the environment
Sir Francis Galton
Nature vs. Nurture (heredity vs. environmental)
Maslow and Rogers
humanists (1960s), described human nature as evolving and self directed; humans not controlled by events in the environment or by unconscious forces (serve as background)
a medical doctor who can prescribe medication to patients (clinical & counseling degree is required)
the scientific study of behavior that is tested through scientific research
educational psychologist
a psychologist who is concerned with helping students learn
behavior viewed as a reflection of internal growth~ assumes that all are good, active and creative and have potential ~ people shape the world, the world doesn't (have to) shape them
Goals of psychology
Description: describe or gather info about a behavior being studied and to present what is known. Explanation: find out how or explain why (hypothesis). Predict: be able to know how a person/ animal is going to react in certain situations. Influence: find out ways that psychologists could be helpful.
an assumption about behavior that is tested through scientific research
Wundt (Wilhelm)
German~founder of psychology as a science ~ introspection (controlling a situation and subject reports thoughts) ~ a way of collecting information about the mind (structuralist)
counseling psychologist
a psychologist who usually helps people deal with problems of living
behavior is viewed as a reflection of unconscious aggressive an sexual impulses. Behavior is the result of unconscious struggles between our "good" or "bad" side.
having to do with an organism's thinking and understanding
scientific method
a general approach to gathering information and answering questions so that errors and biases are minimized
What civilization started the study of psychology?
basic science
the pursuit of knowledge about natural phenomena of its own sake
B.F. Skinner
a behaviorist~wrote books detailing Utopian societies in which lab techniques of rewards and punishments are put into community
a psychologist who studied the function (rather than structure) of consciousness
Jean Piaget/cognitivism
focus is on how we process, store and use information and how this information influences our thinking language, problem solving and creativity. They believe that behavior is more than a simple response to a stimulus
developmental psychologist
a psychologist who studies the emotional, cognitive, biological, personal, and social changes that occur as an individual matures
Current approaches to psychology
psychoanalytic; humanistic; behavioral; neurobiological; cognitive; sociocultural (all of these are approaches to what?)
experimental psychologist
a psychologist who studies sensation, perception, learning motivation and emotion in carefully controlled laboratory conditions
a set of assumptions used to explain phenomena and offered for scientific study
Gestalt (psychology)
Max Wertheimer; Wolfgang Kohler and Kurt Koffka argued that perception is more than the sum of its parts- it involves a "whole pattern"
the scientific study of behavior that is tested through scientific research
free association
~Sigmund Freud~ a Freudian technique used to examine the unconscious; the patient is instructed to say what ever comes into his or her mind
examines behavior in terms of physical changes and biological responses ~ muscular changes > chemical changes in the body/brain. No focus on emotions or outside world.
a psychologist who studies how physical and chemical changes in our bodies influence our behavior
a psychologist who studied the basic elements that make up conscious mental experiences
applied science
discovering ways to use scientific findings to accomplish practical goals
behavior viewed as a product of earned responses based on rewards and punishments
health psychologist
study the interaction between physical and psychological health factors. They may investigate how stress or depression leads to physical ailments such as ulcers, cancer or the common cold.
behavior is view as strongly influenced by rules and expectations of specific social groups or cultures. Cultures make us who we are.
a psychologist who studies how unconscious motives and conflicts determine human behavior
clinical psychologist
a psychologist who diagnoses and treats people with emotional disturbances
Sigmund Freud
introduced concept of the unconscious mind~ conscious experience like tip of the iceberg~ free association ~ job of psychoanalyst to be objective and interpret information~ dream analysis
APA divisions
a scientific and professional society of psychologists and educators (American Psychological Association) -largest association in the world & USA.
Ivan Pavlov
conditioned response in dogs to salivate at sound of tuning fork
community psychologist
a psychologist who may work in a mental health or social welfare agency
behavior is viewed as a product of our internal "conversations" and thoughts. Focus is on thinking and thought processes
John B. Watson
Behaviorist- only observable behavior should be studied. All behavior is the result of rewards and punishments. NO FREE WILL.
environmental psychologist
work in business settings or within the government to study the effects of the environment on people
a method of self-observation in which participants report their thoughts and feelings

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