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what is a theory?
an orderly integrated set of statements that describes, explains, and predicts behavior.
why are theories important?
they guide and give meaning to what we see, and give us a basis for action based on what we see.
what is context?
unique combinations of personal and environmental circumstances
what is stability?
the idea that an individual who has a strong set of characteristics in a certain area will maintain those characteristics throught their life.
what does the term tabula rosa mean?
"blank slate." according to this idea, children are, to begin with, nothing at all, and all kinds of experiences can shape their characters.
whose idea was tabula rosa?
John locke.
What did Jean Jacques Rousseau believe?
that we were noble savages, and were genetically endowed with a sense of right and wrong, and with the innate plan for orderly, healthy, growth. AND, he believed in maturation, which is a "genetically determined, naturally unfolding, course of growth."
what are the names ofthe two German Philosophers?
Tetens and Augusta
who believed in natural selection?
Charles Darwin
what is the normative approach?
measures ofbehavior are taken on large numbers of individuals
what was Freud's psychosexual theory?
that parents need to manage their child's sexual and aggressive drives in the first few years, because it is crucial to healthy personality development
what is the id
the largest portion of the mind, that controls the basic biological needs and desires
the ego
the conscious, rational part of personality. emerges in infancy.
the conscience
whose theory was the psychosocial theory?
What did freud think about his patients?
he thought that they had psychological problems
what is the problem with psychoanalytical theories?
you can't test them. they are too general/vague...theories should be testable.
Operant conditioning
Albert Bandura
Children's self-efficacy. Children imitate what they see, and based on rewards and punishments they are formed.
What did piget believe about children?
that they are "little scientists" and they are constantly trying to figure out their environment.
what is a microsystem?
people and objects in the immediate environment
what happens in one microsystem can influence others
social settings that a person may not experience firsthand, but that will influences development
the broadest environmental context
studying culture or group through participant observation
what is an independent variable?
that thing that you manipulate or change between two case studies
what is a dependant variable
the variable that the investigator expects to be influenced by the independent system.
the adaptive, or survival value of behavior and its evolutionary history
correlational design
researchers gather information on already-existing groups of individuals, generally in natural life circumstances, and make no effort to alter their experiences. Then they look at relationships between participants' characteristics and their behavior of devlopment.
studies done to a group of indiv. over a period of time, at different ages
cross-sectional study
study done to a group at a specific time, of all different ages.
directly observable char.
the complex blend of genetic information that determines our species and influences all our unique char.
sperm or egg...
how many chromos does a gamete have?
23...half as many as a regular body cell
how are gametes formed?
when a sperm and egg unite at conception which contains 46 chromos
what is the ratio of DNA to chromo
one molecule of DNA inside ONE chromosome
the alleles in the pair of chromosomes are the same
when the alleles in the pair of chromos differ...often one allele is dominant.
genetic imprinting
when a gene is chemically marked, or imprinted in such a way that one member of the pair is activated, regardless of its makeup
Huntingtons disease
a fatal disease characterized by progressive degeneration of the NS
Down Syndrome
-extra 21st chromo
-usually provided by the egg
passive correlation
an environment created by the parents, based on heredity...that the child has NO CONTROL over...
evocative correlation
children evoke responses that are influenced by the child's heredity, and these responses strengthen thechild's original style....example, a happy baby is likely to receive more social stimulation than a grumpy baby...
active correlation
as children get older, and gain more freedom, they tend to pick environments and surround themselves with environments that fit their genetic dispositions. aka--> NICHE-PICKING
nonshared environmental influences
influences within a family that make kids different from one another.

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