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Microbiology test ch 1-8


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What is microbiology?
Branch of biology, small microbes
Microbiology is ?
the study of small organisms requirng a microscope to see.
What is a pathogen?
a microbe that causes disease(strep, staph)only 1%of all known microbes are pathogens.
What are the 5 different microbes?
protozoans and viruses
The functions of microbes are:
1)capture light energy and store it for others
2)they decompose dead organisms and other waste
3)make nitrogen available to plants from the air
4)they are beneficial to other organisms
5)food industry
6)synthesis of antibiotics
7)field of genetic engineering
Explain synthesis of antibiotics:
substances derived from 1 organism that kill or inhibit growth of other microorganisms
What is the field of genetic engineering?
the use of microbes to make things for us (insulin,dyes, ect.)
Why study micro?
They are a part of our environment.
1)disease transmission and prevention
2)it also provides an understanding of all life forms
Name the 5 kingdom classification:
what are the characteristics of Monera
-prokaryotic (no nuclear membrane) one celled. three
shape-spherical round, rod shape, spiral
which one of the 5Kclass are found in all environments:
soil,ponds,seawater,and in air(but can't live in the air)
Monera or bacteria
which 5Kclass can eat and decompose almost anything?
what are the characteristics of Protista?
eukaryotic (nuclear membrane)most are one celled.
what are the characteristics of plantae?
eukaryotic (nuclear membrane)milti-cellular.
(non pathogenic)
what are the characteristics of fungi?
(nuclear membrane)multi-cellular
what are the characteristics of animalia?
eukaryotic (nuclear membrane)
What are the 2 diveded parts of protista?
algae and protozoans
What are some of the characteristics of algae
-some are single celled & microscopic
-some are larger and multi-cellular
-they are of little medical importance
What are some characteristics of protozoans?
-do contain some pathogens
-single-celled and microscopic
-nuclear membrane(eukaryotic
What are some characteristics of plantae?
-all are photosynthetic
-no pathogens
what are some characteristics of fungi?
-yeasts, molds and mushrooms
-yeast is one unicellular
-most are multicellular
-absorb nutients from the environment from only dead organisms
-some are pathogenetic and others are the sources of antibiotics.
Why arent viruses found in the 5 kingdoms?
because they are acellular, they are not composed of cells
what are viruses composed of?
they are formed w/only nucleic acid and protein.
What are some other characteristics of viruses?
-RNA and DNA
-they reproduce only in living cells
-all are pathogenic to something
-there are viruses that only effect bacteria ]
-there are viruses that only retain the ability to be infective.
name some other infectious agents.
viroids and prions
name the characteristics of viroids
fragments of RNA and no capsil- plant pathogens
name the characteristics of prions.
proteinaceous infectious paricle (mad cow disease,kreutsfield, jakob
Name the fields of microbiology:
What is a person studying in bacteriology?
What is a person studying in phycology?
What is one studying in Mycology?
What is one studing in protozology
What is one studying in virology?
What is one studying in parasitology?
study of parasitic worms
what is some of the earliest things they did in the awareness of microbes?
in the bible Moses instructed people to bury all human wastes and they isolated sick people especially people w/leprosy
What did the Greeks discover in 400BC?
that there was person to person transmission and clothing to person transmission
What did the Romans find in 100BC?
that they began practicing biological warfare before going into battle by dipping their swords into animal wastes or human manure in case they did not kill them the infection would

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