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SCIENCE final exam notecards

things that i will need to know for the final science exam


undefined, object
copy deck
anything that has mass and takes up space
what parts fall off
the first and second part
what is necessary in order for them to stay in orbit
gravity and inertia
what information does the pte tell us about each element
its mass number of protons neutrons and electrons also valence electrons
what chemical reaction occurred on the statue of liberty
what is the greenhouse effect and what planet has this type of condition?
climate change/global warming, Uranus
is a large object that forms by contraction out of the gas of a giant molecular cloud in the interstellar medium. The protostellar phase is an early stage in the process of star formation. For a solar-mass star it lasts about 100,000 years. It starts with a core of increased density in a molecular cloud and ends with the formation of a T Tauri star, which then develops into a main sequence star. This is heralded by the T Tauri wind, a type of super solar wind that marks the change from the star accreting mass into radiating energy.
what are alloys
a mixture of two metals ex: steel
what missions explored mars
viking 1 and 2
name a medical use for gamma rays here on earth
treatment to cancer
where is most of the mass located
in the nucleus
endothermic reaction
takes in energy
What is a multi stage rocket and how does it work
Rocket launch vehicle made up of several rocket stages (often three) joined end to end. The bottom, or first, stage fires first, boosting the vehicle to high speed, then it falls away. The second stage fires, thrusting the now lighter vehicle even faster. The remaining stages fire and fall away in turn, ending with the upper stage, boosting the vehicle's payload (cargo) to orbital velocity or escape velocity.
group 3-12
transition metals
what were some things they discovered
they discovered that the moon had almost completely cooled, that there were no volcanoes, and things like marias and highlands
who is Galileo
a italian astronomer who was the first person to use telescopes to study stars and he proved Copernicus's theroy which made the church get mad at him and shun him.
the path of an object as it revolves around another object in space
who is credited for putting together the idea of the pte
Name the colors of the visible spectrum in order from red
red orange yellow green blue indigo violet
like mountains on the moon
what is used to make bronze
which layer is the hottest
what type of ion is formed by the halogen family
explain why a salt water solution can carry electric current
because it is an ionic compound
what is the name of our closest galaxy and what is it called?
Andromeda and it is a spiral
what are properties of metalloid's
they have properties of both metals and non-metals
name telescopes that are used to collect other forms of EMS
radiation telescope
the apparent displacement of an observed object due to a change in the position of the observer.
what can the second shell hold
what was the physics behind the launch? you must explain both forces at work as the rocket took off
when the rocket took of it was building up potential energy and releasing the co2
bohr model
1913 showed layers and shells niels bohr
What type of nuclear reaction is necessary for a star to "be born"
nuclear fusion
what type of ions are formed by non-metals
list the inner planets
Mercury Venus Earth Mars
can an element be a nonmetal and a gas?how?
yes just like all of the noble gases
what is the longest wavelength on the EMS
radio waves
what are vertical columns called on the pte
which type of galaxy contains old stars
in spiral galaxy like the milky way
name our galaxy?
milky way
space stations
a large satellite in which people can live in for long periods of time
why do we not experience a lunar or solar eclipse once a month
because the moon adn the sun are not in the position for that to happen
What does it location tell us about the sun?
it tells us that our sun is dull in brightness and not very hott
why should we not look at the corona
because you can become blinded
name the liquids on the pte
mercury and bromine
where is the asteroid belt?
between mars and jupiter
what is the current model of the atom called
electron cloud model
law of conservation of mass
also known as law of mass/matter conservation (or the Lomonosov-Lavoisier law), states that the mass of a closed system will remain constant, regardless of the processes acting inside the system. An equivalent statement is that matter cannot be created/destroyed, although it may be rearranged. This implies that for any chemical process in a closed system, the mass of the reactants must equal the mass of the products.
what does electrically neutral mean
that there are the same amount of protons as there are neutrons and electrons so then the overall charge is the same
new moon
the sun lights the side of the moon facing away from earth. The side of the moon that is dark faces earth
what is the relationship between the number of election in the valence shell and its position on the PTE
the numbers of the valence electrons get larger as you move from LHS-RHS across the PTE
s an atom or molecule which has lost or gained one or more valence electrons, giving it a positive or negative electrical charge.
explain red shift
is a shift in the frequency of a photon toward lower energy, or longer wavelength. The redshift is defined as the change in the wavelength of the light divided by the rest wavelength of the light, as
what type of compound is sugar? water?
molecular compounds
what causes the oceans, seas, and large lakes
which type of eclipse are we most likely to experience in our lifetime? why?
a lunar eclipse because it is more likely the moon to block the sun to the earth then have all the moon and the sun and the earth line up to block the sunlight
what are the horizontal rows called on the pte
the darkest part of the shadow
what is unequal sharing of electrons called?
if a star glows red instead of blue what does that tell astronomers
that the red star is not as hot
global positioning system and we use it to find or way around places like directions
how could all gases become a solid
Also called minor planet. Astronomy. any of the thousands of small bodies of from 480 miles (775 km) to less than one mile (1.6 km) in diameter that revolve about the sun in orbits lying mostly between those of Mars and Jupiter.
most abundant in humans
name to molecular compounds
ice, sugar
the two days of the year on which neither hemisphere is tilted toward ro away from the sun happens in march and september
first quarter
you see half of the lighted side of the moon
what can happen to giant and super giants when they blow up
they can become black holes
group 2
alkaline earth metals
As our sun uses up all of its hydrogen what will it become
a giant
is an interstellar cloud of dust, hydrogen gas and plasma. It is the first stage of a star's cycle. Originally nebula was a general name for any extended astronomical object, including galaxies beyond the Milky Way (some examples of the older usage survive; for example, the Andromeda Galaxy was referred to as the Andromeda Nebula before galaxies were discovered by Edwin Hubble). Nebulae often form star-forming regions, such as in the Eagle Nebula. This nebula is depicted in one of NASA's most famous images, the "Pillars of Creation". In these regions the formations of gas, dust and other materials 'clump' together to form larger masses, which attract further matter, and eventually will become big enough to form stars. The remaining materials are then believed to form planets, and other planetary system objects.
list characteristics of ionic compound
charges need tlo cancel each other out + attract -
covalent bonding
is a form of chemical bonding that is characterized by the sharing of pairs of electrons between atoms, or between atoms and other covalent bonds. In short, attraction-to-repulsion stability that forms between atoms when they share electrons is known as covalent bonding.
describe mercurys atmosphere
a very thin atmosphere
which of these factors push outward
apx. how many of these are naturally found
more than half
what is a geocentric idea of the solar system?
that earth is in the center of all
what is a semiconductor and name one of their major properties
Any of various solid crystalline substances, such as germanium or silicon, having electrical conductivity greater than insulators but less than good conductors, and used especially as a base material for computer chips and other electronic devices.
which type of bond produces crystals
the spinning motion of a planet about its axis
how did our solar system form?
the big bang theory
what is special about group 18
Helium has 2 valence electrons when the rest of the elements have 8 valence electrons
what charge is on all ions formed by group 1and group 2
what evidence do we have that black hole exist
because when stars disappear
how long does it take for the moon to complete its cycle?
29.5 days
what was the big bang theory
is a cosmological model of the universe that has become well supported by several independent observations. After Edwin Hubble discovered that galactic distances were generally proportional to their redshifts in 1929, this observation was taken to indicate that the universe is expanding.[1] If the universe is seen to be expanding today, then it must have been smaller, denser, and hotter in the past. This idea has been considered in detail all the way back to extreme densities and temperatures, and the resulting conclusions have been found to conform very closely to what is observed.
the part of the shadow surrounding the darkest part
what is the smallest whole unit of matter
when does a white star become a black dwarf?
when the white dwarf star runs out of energy
what are quarks
Any of a group of six elementary particles having electric charges of a magnitude one-third or two-thirds that of the electron, regarded as constituents of all hadrons.
why have we here on earth not seen the back side of the moon?
because the rotation and revolution are moving at the same time in the same places
what is the overall charge on the nucleus
any of the more than 100 known substances (of which 92 occur naturally) that cannot be separated into simpler substances and that singly or in combination constitute all matter
exothermic reaction
gives off energy
what are properties of metals
good conductors shininess malleability ductility magnetic
what is a subscript?
is a number, figure, symbol, or indicator that appears smaller than the normal line of type and is set slightly below or above it - subscripts appear at or below the baseline, while superscripts are above. Subscripts and superscripts are perhaps best known for their use in formulas, mathematical expressions, and descriptions of chemical compounds or isotopes, but have many other uses as well.
Which of these factors pull inward
apparent magnitude
how bright the star seems to be
what is the function of the zig zag line on the pte?
separates the metals from the metalloids
group 17
.) A reaction in which the atoms in an element lose electrons and the valence of the element is correspondingly increased.
homozygous mixture
the substances are so evenly mixed you cannot see the different parts ex: air
chadwick model
1932 neutrons james chadwick
in general what type of compound forms when a metal ion and non metal ion bond
positive compound
chemical equation?
its a way of showing what happens in a chemical reaction using symbols instead of words
what observations do we have that the universe is expanding
galaxies are moving father and farther apart
what does electrically neutral mean in the formation of ionic compounds?
its means that there are the same number of valence electrons
what type of ions are formed by metals
What are 2 factors that keep the planets in orbit
Inertia and Gravity
what is a G force and how does it affect astronauts in space?
gravitational pull affects astronauts because how much pressure you can hold the pull of gravity on a falling object
where is most of the atoms volume located
the space between the nucleus and the protons
why are there elements on the pte that have not been named
because chemist could not keep the element long enough to find its mass and atomic number
name the elements involved?
what is the action force
take off
what are poly atomic ions
is an ion consisting of a molecule with covalently bonded atoms or of a metal complex that can be considered as acting as a single unit in the context of acid and base chemistry or in the formation of salts.
what is the only section of the EMS visable to the human light
visable rays
what makes up steel
name plutos moon
what is the shape of our galaxy?
what are properties of covalent or molecular compounds
made from ATOMS not ions!
which one is smaller an atom or a cell
what is the most famous metalloid
if an ion has a - oxidation# what does that tell you about the ion?
that it wants to take in electons
the shortest wavelength on the EMS
gamma rays
what is the first element being formed? what is the later element
first-He later- Be
any object that revolves around another object in space
what is an equation?
is a symbolic representation of a chemical reaction. [1] The coefficients next to the symbols and formulae of entities are the absolute values of the stoichiometric numbers. The first chemical equation was diagrammed by Jean Beguin in 1615. the quantity of each element does not change. Thus, each side of the equation must represent the same quantity of any particular element. Also in case of net ionic reactions the same charge must be present on both sides of the hiddly unbalanced equation, one may balance it by changing the scalar number for each molecular formula.
who gets credit for the discovery of the nucleus of an atom
what type of planet is pluto
dwarf planet
nagoka model
1904 showed electrons hantaro nagoka
why was pluto demoted?
because it is to small and is too far away
if an element is in group 1 how many valence electrons does it have
1 and it likes to give away
a spectroscope for photographing or producing a representation of a spectrum.
which is our "sister" planet
which element is the most abundant in the earths crust?
Where is our sun on the H-R Diagram
in the main sequence
what mission landed people on the moon
apollo 13 and the eagle
what name is given to substances on the RHS and LHS of the equations
the two days of the year on which the noon sun is directly overhead at either 23.5 degrees South or 23.5 degrees North happens in june and december
group 18
noble gas
geosynchronous orbit
th orbit of a satellite that revolves around the earth at the same time the earth rotates
what are sun spots and are they hotter or coolers than the suns surface
is a region on the Sun's surface (photosphere) that is marked by a lower temperature than its surroundings and has intense magnetic activity, which inhibits convection, forming areas of low surface temperature. Although they are blindingly bright at temperatures of roughly 4000-4500 K, the contrast with the surrounding material at about 5800 K leaves them clearly visible as dark spots. If they were isolated from the surrounding photosphere they would be brighter than an electric arc. A minimum in the eleven-year sunspot cycle may have taken place in late 2007 and while the observation of a reverse polarity sunspot on 4 January 2008 officially began Cycle 24, no additional sunspots have yet been seen in this cycle. Sunspots are often related to intense magnetic activity such as coronal loops and reconnection. Most solar flares and coronal mass ejections originate in magnetically active regions around sunspot groupings. Similar phenomena observed on stars other than the Sun are commonly called starspots and both light (warm) and dark (cool) spots are seen.and it is cooler than the suns surface
why are some of the symbols on the pte not similar to the name of the element
because some are Latin and named after the chemist who discovered it
waxing gibbous
the moon continues to wax.
if a new element were to be discovered in the next week what could chemist predict about that element
where it would go and the atomic number
what is a specific group of stars called?
thomson model
1897 chocolate chip cookie model j.j. thompson
what is the logic behind the pte pattern
it is placed in the order of valence electron moving up as you go from LHS-RHS across the table also with atomic numbers increasing from LHS-RHS as you move across the table
group 1
alkali metals
How are rockets launched
according to Newtons 3rd law of motion for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction
thermal conductivity
is the property of a material that indicates its ability to conduct heat. It appears primarily in Fourier's Law for heat conduction.
dark, flat regions on the moons surface
rutherford model
1911 thought that the atom was mostly empy space ernest rutherford
is a substance made by combining two or more different materials with no chemical reaction occurring. The objects do not bond together in a mixture. A mixture can usually be separated back into its original components. Some examples of mixtures are: fruit salad, ocean water and soil. Mixtures are the product of a mechanical blending or mixing of chemical substances like elements and compounds, without chemical bonding or other chemical change, so that each ingredient substance retains it's own chemical properties and makeup.[1]
list oxidation # for family 1,2,13,14,15,16,17,18
family1=1, family 2=2, family 13=3, family 14=4, family 15=5, family16=6, family 17=7, family 18=8
absolute magnitude
actual brightness
group 13
Name a use for two different metalloids
silicon-computers and arsenic-rat posion
a world or sphere in which something exists or prevails: his private universe.
name jupiters frozen moon and its volcanic moon?
frozen: europa volcanic:Io
what type of element are most of the elements on the pte
Pure Substance
are often defined as "any material with a definite chemical composition" in most introductory general chemistry textbooks.[3] According to this definition a chemical substance can either be a pure chemical element or a pure chemical compound. However, there are exceptions to this definition, a pure substance can also be defined as a form of matter that has both definite composition and distinct properties.[4] and the chemical substance index published by CAS also includes several alloys of uncertain composition.[5] Non-stoichiometric compounds are a special case (in inorganic chemistry) that violates the law of constant composition, and for them, it is sometimes difficult to draw the line between a mixture and a compound, as in the case of palladium hydride.
what type of elements bond covalently
between non-metals only!
How many moon phases are there?
heterogeneous mixture
you can see the different parts ex: salad
what is the next phase in the star cycle for our sun?
super giant
waning crescent
you see a crescent again
what are white dwarfs
also called a degenerate dwarf, is a small star composed mostly of electron-degenerate matter. As white dwarfs have mass comparable to the Sun's and their volume is comparable to the Earth's, they are very dense. Their faint luminosity comes from the emission of stored heat.[1] They comprise roughly 6% of all known stars in the solar neighborhood.[2] The unusual faintness of white dwarfs was first recognized in 1910 by Henry Norris Russell, Edward Charles Pickering and Williamina Fleming;[3], p. 1 the name white dwarf was coined by Willem Luyten in 1922.[4]
full moon
you see the whole lighted side of the moon
dalton model
1808 solid ball john dalton
name the 3 shapes of galaxies
spiral, elliptical, and oval
kinetic energy
of an object is the extra energy which it possesses due to its motion. It is defined as the work needed to accelerate a body of a given mass from rest to its current velocity. Having gained this energy during its acceleration, the body maintains this kinetic energy unless its speed changes. Negative work of the same magnitude would be required to return the body to a state of rest from that velocity.
how long is a "day" on the moon?
27.5 days
solar flares
A CME (coronal mass ejection) is a violent explosion in the Sun's atmosphere releasing up to a total energy of 6 × 1025 Joules. Solar flares take place in the solar corona and chromosphere, heating plasma to tens of millions of kelvins and accelerating electrons, protons and heavier ions to near the speed of light. They produce electromagnetic radiation across the electromagnetic spectrum at all wavelengths from long-wave radio to the shortest wavelength gamma rays. Most flares occur in active regions around sunspots, where intense magnetic fields emerge from the Sun's surface into the corona. Flares are powered by the sudden (timescales of minutes to tens of minutes) release of magnetic energy stored in the corona.
what part of an atom is involved in chemical bonding
valence electrons
how does a solar eclipse occur?
the blocking of sunlight to earth that occurs when the moon is between the sun and earth
most abundant in the earths atmosphere?
how are double-bonds formed
with 4 electrons
who gets credit for the empty space model
what is another name for heat energy
thermal energy
proposed the now accepted theroy that the planets move around the sun
a round pit on the moons surface
The ability or power to conduct or transmit heat, electricity, or sound.
classify the sun in terms of heat and brightness
dwarf and dull
What is special about hydrogen
it is a non metal on the metal side of the table but acts more like a metalloid
which of the following elements have the most valence electrons Na, B, Cl
Cl has the most valence electrons
a celestial body moving about the sun, usually in a highly eccentric orbit, consisting of a central mass surrounded by an envelope of dust and gas that may form a tail that streams away from the sun.
What causes a star to "die"
it runs out fuel
Moon Phase
one of the different shapes of the moon as seen from earth
what is the reaction force
lift off
give an example of a double bond
two oxygens
why is venus hotter than mercury
A CME (coronal mass ejection) is a violent explosion in the Sun's atmosphere releasing up to a total energy of 6 × 1025 Joules. Solar flares take place in the solar corona and chromosphere, heating plasma to tens of millions of kelvins and accelerating electrons, protons and heavier ions to near the speed of light. They produce electromagnetic radiation across the electromagnetic spectrum at all wavelengths from long-wave radio to the shortest wavelength gamma rays. Most flares occur in active regions around sunspots, where intense magnetic fields emerge from the Sun's surface into the corona. Flares are powered by the sudden (timescales of minutes to tens of minutes) release of magnetic energy stored in the corona.
Soft reflected light; sheen.
what is the advantage of space shuttles over rockets
because space shuttles can take off in one part unlike rockets which have a 3 part launching system
law of conservation of energy
states that the total amount of energy in any isolated system remains constant but cannot be recreated, although it may change forms, e.g. friction turns kinetic energy into thermal energy. In thermodynamics, the first law of thermodynamics is a statement of the conservation of energy for thermodynamic systems, and is the more encompassing version of the conservation of energy. In short, the law of conservation of energy states that energy can not be created or destroyed, it can only be changed from one form to another.
what is the energy level farthest away from the nucleus cloud
valence shell
is a substance consisting of two or more different elements chemically bonded together in a fixed proportion by mass.[1][2]
what does the atomic # tell us about an element
the number of electrons
how moons do mars have? name them
2 and phobus and deimos
present model
present electron negatively charged cloud
name the most common elements in the universe
what was ptolemys contribution to astronomy
The Earth, he argued, is a stationary sphere at the centre of a vastly larger celestial sphere that revolves at a perfectly uniform rate around the Earth, carrying with it the stars, planets, Sun, and Moon—thereby causing their daily risings and settings. Through the course of a year the Sun slowly traces out a great circle, known as the ecliptic, against the rotation of the celestial sphere.
what is the major different between a reflecting and refracting telescope
the reflecting telescope reflects light and the refracting takes in light
give an example of a substance that is crystalline
sugar and water solution
list the layers of the sun
corona, chromosphere, photosphere, inner core, core
List the 4 most common elements in human body
what is an oxidation #
of a central atom in a coordination compound is the charge that it would have if all the ligands were removed along with the electron pairs that were shared with the central atom.[1] It is used in the nomenclature of inorganic compounds. It is represented by a Roman numeral; the plus sign is omitted for positive oxidation numbers. The oxidation number is placed either as a right superscript to the element symbol, e.g. FeIII, or in parentheses after the name of the element, e.g. iron(III): in the latter case, there is no space between the element name and the oxidation number.
Capable of being shaped or formed, as by hammering or pressure: a malleable metal.
potential energy
can be thought of as energy stored within a physical system. It is called potential energy because it has the potential to be converted into other forms of energy, such as kinetic energy, and to do work in the process. The standard (SI) unit of measure for potential energy is the joule, the same as for work, or energy in general.
black holes
is a region of space in which the gravitational field is so powerful that nothing, not even light, can escape its pull after having fallen past its event horizon. The term "Black Hole" comes from the fact that, at a certain point, even electromagnetic radiation (e.g. visible light) is unable to break away from the attraction of these massive objects. This renders the hole's interior invisible or, rather, black like the appearance of space itself.
if an ion has a + oxidation number? what does that tell you about the ion?
that it wants to give away electrons
what evidence do we have of the big band theory?
* First of all, we are reasonably certain that the universe had a beginning. Second, galaxies appear to be moving away from us at speeds proportional to their distance. This is called "Hubble's Law," named after Edwin Hubble (1889-1953) who discovered this phenomenon in 1929. This observation supports the expansion of the universe and suggests that the universe was once compacted.Third, if the universe was initially very, very hot as the Big Bang suggests, we should be able to find some remnant of this heat. In 1965, Radioastronomers Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson discovered a 2.725 degree Kelvin (-454.765 degree Fahrenheit, -270.425 degree Celsius) Cosmic Microwave Background radiation (CMB) which pervades the observable universe. This is thought to be the remnant which scientists were looking for. Penzias and Wilson shared in the 1978 Nobel Prize for Physics for their discovery.Finally, the abundance of the "light elements" Hydrogen and Helium found in the observable universe are thought to support the Big Bang model of origins.
Name the moon phases
first quarter, waxing crescent, new moon, waning crescent, third quarter, waning gibbous, full moon, waxing gibbous
neutron star
A typical neutron star has a mass between 1.35 and about 2.1 solar masses, with a corresponding radius between 20 and 10 km,[1] respectively — 30,000 to 70,000 times smaller than the Sun. Thus, neutron stars have overall densities of 8.4×1016 to 1×1018 kg/m³,[2] which compares with the approximate density of an atomic nucleus of 3×1017 kg/m³.[3] The neutron star's density varies from below 1×109 kg/m³ in the crust increasing with depth to above 6 or 8×1017 kg/m³ deeper inside.[4]
three characteristics used to classify stars
brightness temperature and size
why if our sun is so small compared to other stars does it seem so bright to us
because it is the brightest thing we have seen we haven't seen the brightest super giants.
Easily drawn into wire or hammered thin: ductile metals.
what can the third shell hold
A bright trail or streak that appears in the sky when a meteoroid is heated to incandescence by friction with the earth's atmosphere. Also called falling star, meteor burst, shooting star.
name the charges on the particle of an atom
positive and the protons and on the electrons negative the neutrons have no charge
Sequence solar system, sun, galaxy, local group, cornet, earth, and jupiter from smallest to largest
cornet, local group, earth, sun, jupiter, solar system, galaxy
why are molecular compounds good insulators?
because they are good conductors
third quarter
you can see hald of the moon's lighted side
forms of energy
kinetic, potential,electromagnetic,electrical,and thermal
could our sun ever become a black hole?
yes because when i star "dies" they could become a black hole
what is the study of the universe called
what are the two types of bonding called
ionic and convalent
waning gibbous
the fraction of the lighted side of the moon that you see gets smaller each day
To dull the luster of; discolor, especially by exposure to air or dirt.
How does the Herzsprung-Russel Diagram (H-R) tell us about stars
tells us the temperature and the luminosity
waxing crescent
you see more and more of the lighted side of the moon
what does the mass tell us about an element
number of protons
What determines how long a star will live?
size and mass
what are some of the discoveries that have been made on mars?
have discovered new space rocks and stars
diatomic molecules
are molecules made only of two atoms, of either the same or different chemical elements. The prefix di- means two in Greek.
which law of newtons is demonstrated in the launching of a rocket
newtons third law
what are properties of non metals
dull brittle poor conductors lower density than metals can be solid liquid or gas
what is the comparative size of the nucleus compared to an electron
orange and fly
how is heat created on the sun?
nuclear fusion
the movement of an object around another object
what was the chemistry that created the action force in the chemical rockets you constructed in class?
it was the pill thingy (forgot its name) disolving in the water and releasing the co2
what are quasars and why when is it like looking back in time
because they are such distant stars that by the time that light gets to you it is like 1 million years old
what do you think will happen to the universe in the future
the big crunch theory
who explored the moon?
Buzz Aldren
what can the first shell hold

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