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Anthropology 2000 Exam 1


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What is Anthropology?
The study of humankind
The scope of anthropology is...
Broad, including geographical and historical information
The Holistic Approach is...
Multifaceted and covers many aspects of culture
Divisions of anthropology include...
Biological, Cultural, and Applied
Biological anthropology includes what three things?
1. Human Paleontology
2. Primatology
3. Human Variation
What does a paleoanthropologist study?
Human origins and evolution
What does human variation include?
1. Human genetics
2. Population biology
3. Epidemiology
What does Cultural Anthroplogy include?
1. Archaeology
2. Linguistics
3. Ethnology
What is Archaeology?
The study of past cultures and material remains
If something is prehistoric it is...
Before written record
If something is historic it is...
Recent societies with a written record
Anthroplogical Lingusitics covers what three things?
1. Historical
2. Structural
3. Social Lingustics
What is ethnology?
The study of why people differ
What are some different kinds of Ethologists?
1. Ethnographer (feild work)
2. Ethnohistorian (studies change and writeen documentry)
3. Cross-culcutre researcher (particular characteristics)
About half of professional anthropologists are what?
Applied Anthropologists.
Specializations in applied anthropology...
1. Geograhically
2. Historically
3. Subject matter
4. Theoretical Orientation
Artifacts, ecofacts, fossils, and features are what?
Common kinds of Archaeological evidence
What is an artifact?
Something that is made or modified by humans.
What is an ecofact?
A natural object used or modified (food, bones, pollen, insects)
What is a fossil?
A hardened remain or impression.
What are the two different kinds of dating?
Relative and absolute
What is relative dating?
A dating system in which you relate one specimen/deposit to another
Stratigraphy, indicator fossils, and chemical measures are examples of what?
Relative dating processes
What is absolute dating?
Measure in years
Radio Carbon, Electron spin resonance, potassium-argon, and the uranium series are examples of what?
Absolute dating processes
What are the three elements that amounts of are compared in chemical relative dating?
Fluorine, uranium, and nitrogen
An absolute dating method which works on organic matter by measuring radio active decay and doesn't work after 50,000 years is...
Radio Carbon
What is paleomagnetic dating?
This is a dating process which works on rocks, hearths, pottery kins, and metal workshops where the earth/rock/metal has been melted and cooled because the molecules realign with earths moving magnetic feild
What is potassium-argon dating?
This dating process works on volcanic material by measureing radioactive K-40 which becomes Ar-40 after time... this process is only accurate for three billion years
Linnaeus, Lamarck, Cuvier, Lyell, and Darwin where what?
Early Naturalists
The "systema naurae" which classified plants and animals and whose framework suggested common ancestors was set up by which man?
Who is Carolus Linnaeus?
Who is Jean Baptist Lamarck?
The belief in which aquired changes in life were passed to the offspring was thought up by this man.
Who was Georges Cuvier?
He believed in catastrophism and got the fized species replaced.
Who wrote the "Principles of Geology", believed in uniformitarianism, and that the earth is old?
Who is Charles Lyell
Who was Charles Darwin?
He wrote the origin of species and fathered the idea of natural selection.
British moths, houseflies, and bacteria are examples of what?
These are observed examples of evolution.
Who is the father of heredity?
Gregor Mendel
What kind of plant did Gregor Mendel use in his expriments?
Pea plants
What defines genetic drift?
This is a random process which happens in a small population where one gene is frequent by chance.
What is gene flow?
This is the pass of genes from one population to another that decreases differences.
Gene flow and genetic drift are examples of what?
Variation on the population level.
The Lemurs, Loris-likes, and tarsiers are what?
What are the three groups of Anthropoids?
1. New World Monkeys
2. Old World Monkeys
3. Hominiods
Anthropoids that vary in size, are arboreal, have prehensile tails, and are basically quadropedal are...
New World Monkies
Anthropoids that are widely distributed in Africa & Asia, can use aboreal and terrestrial locomothion and are quadropedal are...
Old World Monkeys
What are the three kinds of Hominiods?
1. The Lesser Apes
2. The Greater Apes
3. Humans.
Gibbons and siamang are...
Examples of Lesser Apes
Orangutan, gorilla, and chimpanzee are...
Examples of Great Apes
Lesser apes are located in
Tropical SE Asia
A brochiation (aboreal) swing is done by...
The lesser apes
The Orangutan lives...
In Borneo and Sumatra and are aboreal-climbers
Where do gorillas live?
What do gorillas eat?
Leaes, stems, and roots
How do gorillas walk?
They knuckle walk on the ground
Are gorillas sexually dimorphic?
Who dominates a gorilla group?
The "silverback" male.
Where does the Chimpanzee live?
What does the chimpanzee eat?
Fruit, insects, lizards, birds, and even other monkies.
Are chimpanzees aboreal or terrestrial?
Mostly terrestrial, knuckle walk on ground, they do climb though
When did the earliest primates emerge and what were they?
The Eocene and they were prosimians
What was the environment like when primates started emerging?
Many plants and animals went extinct in the beginning of the paleoscene
How was the climate when the primates started emerging?
The Paleocene was cooler, swamplands started to disappear, large trees with fruit were common, and flowering trees and plants showed up
Primates probably evolved from this...
What did insectivores eat?
Uh.. insects.
What happened to miocene apes?
Monkeys and Apes diverged and there were numerous apes in europe, asia, and africa
What happened to late miocene apes?
Apes diversify and move into many areas, their fossils were abundant in europe and asia
What is the molecular clock?
Studies compared blook proteins, amino acids, chromosomes and DNA strands
How is a hominid defined?
Defined by being bipedal
Where was the first undisputed evidence of hominids?
East Africa
What events favored the evolution of pipedal locomotion?
Less rainforestsand more savannas where first hominids were found
Being able to spot predators in tall grasses, carry food home, harvesteing seeds and nuts, carry tools/weapons, long distance travel, and regulating body temperature are all what?
Theories for the evolution of bipedalism
What was the first definite hominid?
Australopithecus, which was a genus.. there were several different species
What were the two groups of Australopithecus?
Gracile and Robust
What was the australopithecus anamensis?
The earliest australopithecine, which was found in east africa and was the gracile type
What was the australopithecus afarensis?
The best presented species, gracile in type and found in east africa
What is important about Laetoli, Tanzania?
Several australopithecus afarensis were found there as well as footprints in ash which proved bipedal locomotion
What is important about Hadar, Ethiopia?
This is the site with the most complete finds for afarensis, including Lucy
What was australopithecus africanus?
A gracile type found in south africa
What was the Taung child and who discovered it?
This was the first australopithcine discovered and it was credited to Raymond Dart
How was the Taung child evidence of early bipedal hominids?
It had "foramen magnum" hold under skull
What was the Australopithecus Aethiopus?
This was the earliest robust type and was found in east africa.
What was teh austraolpithecus robustus?
This was a robust type found in south africa tha was a vegetarian with large back teeth
Which hominid line when extinct?
The robust line.
Where in east africa where the early hominid tools found?
What was found at Olduvai?
Numerous stone tools.
What were some trends in hominid evolution?
They increased in tool making and had a reduction of face, teeth, and jaws
Where were most of the early homos found?
East Africa.
Where was homo erectus found and what was special about it?
East Africa, first species widely distrubuted in Old World (first to leave Africa)
What was important about Zhoukoudian?
It was an important H. eretus site and is where the "Peking Man" was found in the 1930s
Long low skulls and prominent brow ridges were physical characteristics of...
Homo erectus
Who was responsible for a stone tool called "acheulian"?
H. Erectus
Where was there evidence of big game eating?
Torralba and Ambrona, Spain.
Where were most of the achulian sites?
Terra Amata, in the French Riveria. (Homo erectus campsites)

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