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Ch. 40

Terms

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Melatonin
A natural chemical produced at night that decreases wakefulness and promotes sleep.
Snoring
Caused by an obstruction to airflow through the nose and mouth.
Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP)
A noninvasive technique that consists of a mask connected to an air pump that is worn during sleep to help with sleep apnea. It delivers positive air pressure that holds the airway open.
American Sleep Disorders Association four major categories of disturbances
Dyssomnias, Parasomnias, Sleep Disorders associated with medical or psychiatric disorders, And other proposed disorders.
Sleep
A state of rest accompanied by altered consciousness and relative inactivity. Its a complex rhythmic state involving a progression of repeated cycles, each representing different phases of body and brain activity.
Enuresis
urinating during sleep.
Illness
A physiologic and psychological stressor, that influences sleep.
Nicotine
Has a slight stimulating effect, and causes users to be aroused more easily once they are asleep, "light sleepers"
Rapid Eye Movement (REM)
20-25% of total sleep time. During this phase, respiratory rate, blood pressure, metabolic rate, and body temperature increase, whereas general skeletal muscle and deep tendon reflexes are depressed.
Avoiding unnecessary disturbances
Consider common complaints of care due to being aroused to take pills of have procedures done.
Adult required sleep
7-9 hours of sleep.
Physiological Stress
Affects sleep in two ways. 1) person finds it difficult to obtain the amount of sleep needed. 2) REM sleep decreases in amount .
Causes of Hypersomnia
Another sleep disorder (sleep apnea), Drug or alcohol abuse, Head trauma or other injury to the central nervous system, Effect of certain medications, Depression, obesity & other medical conditions ( multiple sclerosis, epilepsy)
Sleep Hygiene
Changes in one's lifestyle and environment, including reduction of caffeine, nicotine, and alcohol to benefit sleep.
Parasomnias
Patterns of waking behavior that appear during sleep.
Somnambulism
sleep walking
Dyssomnias
sleep disorders characterized by insomnia or excessive sleepiness.
Delta Sleep
Stages 3&4, slow-wave sleep. 10% of total sleep time. Arousal threshold is high.
Bedtime snacks
carbohydrates seem to promote sleep, such as toast, a small a bagel, crackers or a glass of fruit juice.
Sleep Cycle
When a person passes consecutively through 4 stages of NREM sleep. Most people go through four or five cycles of sleep each night. On average each cycle lasts about 90 to 100 minutes. Cycles become longer as morning approaches.
Caffeine
A central nervous system stimulant. Inhibits the ability to fall asleep.
Hypersomnia
A condition characterized by excessive sleep particularly during the day. A person may fall asleep for intervals during work, while eating, or even during conversation.
t-tryptophan
Amino acid that promotes sleep, found in turkey.
Sleep deprivation
A decrease in the amount, consistency, or quality of sleep. It may result from decreased REM sleep or NREM sleep. Effects become apparent after 30 hours of continued wakefullness.
Restless Leg Syndrome
When people can not lie still and report unpleasant creeping, crawling, or tingling sensations in the legs. Sensations usually found in the calf, but they may occur anywhere from the ankle to the thigh.
Circadian Rhythms
Circa is Latin for approximately, and diem is the latin word for day. Meaning approximately a full day 24 hrs. Fluctuations in a persons heart rate, blood pressure, body temperature, body secretions, metabolism, and performance and mood depend in part on these rhythms.
Bruxism
grinding of teeth during sleep.
Circadian Synchronization
Exists when a individuals sleep-wake patterns follow the inner biological clock. When physiologic and psychological rhythms are high or most active, the person is awake; when they are low, the person is asleep.
Alcohol intake
Large amounts may inhibit or limit REM and delta sleep.
Drugs that decrease REM
Barbiturates, amphetamines, and antidepressants.
Promoting relaxation
Stress and anxiety interfere with rest and sleep. Teach patients how to deal with problems how they arise, condition them to consider stressful issues only at certain times, and note that worrying never solves problems and is counterproductive.
Insomnia
Characterized by difficulty falling asleep , intermittent sleep, or early awakening from sleep.
Nocturnal myoclonus
observed in 10-20% of chronic insomniacs, involves marked muscle contractions that result in the jerking of one or both legs during sleep.
Growing children required sleep
10-14 hours of sleep.
Promoting Bedtime rituals
Reading, listening to the radio, watching television, talking to family members, and praying are common before-sleep activities.
Sleep Apnea
A condition in which a person experiences the absence of breathing or diminished breathing efforts during sleep between snoring intervals. Breathing can cease for 10-20 sec or up to 2 min. Most commonly found in middle aged men who are obese and have short thick necks.
Narcolepsy
A condition characterized by an uncontrollable desire to sleep. Literally falls asleep while standing, driving or in the middle of a conversation.
Non-Rapid Eye Movement (NREM)
75% of total sleep. Consists of four stages.
Reticular Activating System (RAS)
Extends upward from the medulla, the pons, the midbrain, and into the hypothalamus. It comprises many nerve cells and fibers. Facilitates reflex and voluntary movements as well as cortical activities related to a state of alertness. Wakefulness occurs when this system is activated with stimuli from the cerebral cortex and from periphery sensory organs and cells.
Rest
A condition in which the body is in a decreased state of activity, with the consequent feeling of being refreshed.
Infant required sleep
14-20 hours each day.

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