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Human experience in health exam 2a


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normal specific gravity for urine
normal pH range of urine
albumin normal serum levels
3.8-4.5 g/dl
describes the normal distribution of fluid in the ICF and ECF compartments
first spacing
abnormal accumulation of intersticial fluid (type of spacing) (i.e. edema)
second spacing
type of spacing that occurs when fluid accumulates in a portion of the body from which it is not easily exchanged w/ the rest of the ECF (ie,edema ass. w/ burns)
third spacing
what is the most critical ion?
what is the normal range for K+?
high osmolarity can cause?
what is the most prevelant intracellular cation?
If one had a crushing injury, what electrolyte might be elevated?
a low level of potassium can cause an increased toxity to what?
how should oral K+ be given?
w/ food because it can upset the stomach otherwise
what is the maintenance dose of potassium?
40-80 mEQ/day
what might be ordered to ensure excretion of K+ from the body?
KayExalate (in oral or rectal form)
what is the normal serum level for Ca++?
9-11 mg/dl
what products promote calcium loss?
milk and carbonated beverages because they contain phosphate
what must calcium be given w/ to promote absorption?
vitamin D
what is the serum range for Sodium?
135-145 mEq/L
aging accounts for a loss in...from the kidneys, which are depleted to 40% fewer functioning...than in early adulthood
what are some effects of aging on the urniary system?
bladder capaciy decreases, involuntary contractions increase, ADH is less active at night
what is the normal creatinine serum level?
0.5-1.5 mg/dl
what is the normal BUN serum level?
5-25 mg/dl
what is the normal ratio between BUN/Cratinine
a ration of BUN/Creatinine <10:1 is indicative of what?
acute tubular necrosis, liver disease, hemodialisis, malnutrition
a ration of BUN/cratinine > 10:1 is indiciative of what?
reduced renal profussion, muscle destruction, hypotension, shock, GI bleeding
what is the adult range of serum osmolality?
280-300 mOsm/kg H2O
what does elevated osmolality indicate?
what does decreased osmolality indicate?
overhydration or hemodilution
Hypervolemia indicates a shift in fluid to where?
from the interstitial to the plasma
what are some clinical manifestations of hypervolemia?
hyptertension, tachycardia, distended jugulars, gallop, edema, moist lung sounds, bulging fontanels
how is hypervolemia treated?
diuretics, fluid restriction, primary dialysis if life threatening
blisters are what type of fluid spacing?
the .....releases ACTH?
anterior pituitary
aldosterone acts specifically on...
to maintain cation balance, when sodium is excreted, reabsorbed
Urine osmolalaity is normally in what range?
100-1300 mOsm/kg H2O
what is released by the right atrium in response to stretch of the atrum from excess fluid volume?
atrial natriuretic hormone (ANF): decreases blood volume and BP
what diuretic is an example of a loop diuretic?
what is an example of a K+ sparing diuretic?
what sorts of foods are high in potassium?
fruit, dried fruit, vegetables, salt substitutes
approximately how much of the total serum calcium is ionized?
alterations in what serum protein can affect calcium levles?
calcium balance is controlled by what gland?
Parathyroid Hormone (PTH) moves calcium
bone to blood
what is produced by the thyroid gland is stimulated by high serum calcium levles?
what are the functions of calcium?
transmission of nerve impulses, myocardial contractions, blood clotting, formation of teeth/bone, and muscle contractions
excess calcium blocks...
the effect of sodium in skeletal muscles, which leads to reduced excitability of both muscles and nerves
what are some signs of hypercalcemia?
decreased memory, confusion, disorientation, fatigue, muscle weakness, constipation, cardiac arrhythmias, renal calculi
trousseau's sign is...
carpal spasms induced by inflating a blood pressure cuff on the arm
chvostek's sign is...
contraction of facial muscles in response to a tap over the facial nerve in front of the ear
if the blood plasma has a higher osmolality than the fluid w/in a red blood cell, the mechanism involved in equalizing the fluid concentration is...
a clinical indication of dehydration is...
weight loss
implementaion of nursing care for the patient with hyponatremia includes:
fluid restriction
a patient is reciving a loop diuretic. A symptom the nurse should be aware of is?
weak, irregular pulse/poor muscle tone
a 42-year-old woman w/ systemic lupus erythematosus and renal failure would be at risk for what electrolyte imbalance?
a person who has undergone a thyroidectomy should be assesed for....
positive chvostek's sign
a person w/ hyperphosphatemia secondary to renal failure may require..
calcium supplements
how do the lungs act as a buffer between acids and bases?
by increasing respiratory rate/depth when CO2 levels in the blood are high, reducing acid load
a patien has: pH 7.52, PaCO2 30mmHg, HCO3- 24 mEq/L; the nurse det. that the patient has...
respiratory alkalosis
the typical fluid replacement for a patient w/ an ICF fluid deficit is...
foods that thicken the stool
applesauce, bananas, bread, cheese, high fiber foods, marshmallows, pasta, penut butter, rice, tapioca
foods that loosen stool
alcohol, beans, beer, chocolate, coffee, fried food, prune/grape juice, raw fruit/veg., spicy food, spinach
foods that may block an ileostomy
celery/coconut/coleslaw/corn/ nuts/popcorn/raisins/raw veggies/seeds/stringy meat

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