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Unit 5 Review

Review for Unit 5 test on 12/3/07.

Terms

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John Locke
English philosopher who advocated the idea of a "social contract" in which government powers are derived from the consent of the governed and in which the government serves the people; also said people have natural rights to life, liberty and property.
Peter The Great
Ruled Russia when he was 22.Believed that his country must Westernize in order to be succesful.
Eugene Delacroix
French romantic painter, master of dramatic colorful scenes that stirred the emotions. Greatest romantic painters. Fascinated with remote and exotic subjects. Masterpiece: Liberty Leading the People.
English Bill of Rights
1689. William and Mary excepted it.
Absolute Monarchy
System in which a monarch had complete power.
Scientific Revolution
1550-1700 when there was a new emphasis on observation and reason in science, rather than a reliance on a traditional knowledge.
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
Musical prodigy, traveled through Europe, rebelled against church rules, classical style.
Geocentric
Earth is at the center of the universe.
Divine Rights of Kings
The idea that God had chosen monarchs to rule.
Miguel de Cervantes
Spanish writer best remembered for 'Don Quixote' which satirizes chivalry and influenced the development of the novel form (1547-1616)
Johannes Kepler
Father of Modern Astronomy; Confirmed the heliocentric theory with observations.
Galileo Galilei
Built a telescope and was the first to make a regular observations with it.
Voltaire
Wrote Philosophic Letters on the English & Treatise on Toleration. He admired the English freedom of the press, and religous toleration. He criticized France because of its royal absolutism and lack of freedom of thought.
Jean-Jacques Rosseau
French philosoper, ideas had great influence- Born in 1712, believed people should be guided by emotions, disagreed with other philosophers
Louis XIV
Ruled Europe. The "Sun King" Famous saying "L'etat, c'est moi" Moved the capital from Paris to Versailles.
Frederick The Great
Ruled Prussia. Ruler of Prussia(A German State). Centralized Government; Devoted his life to the Prussian Army.
Isaac Newton
Defined the laws of motion and gravity.
Enlightenment
"Age of Reason"Devolped as the Scientific Revolution.
Fallow
A field that is not used to plant crops for a year.
William and Mary
King and Queen of England in 1688. With them, King James' Catholic reign ended. As they were Protestant, the Puritans were pleased because only protestants could be office-holders.
Charles I
Tried to advocate the divine right of kings. 1600-1649
English Civil War
Broke out between Parliament's supporters(Roundheads) and the king's supporters(Cavaliers)
Johann Sebastian Bach
Devout German Lutheran, wrote complex and beautiful religious works.
Age of Absolutism
1650-1789 A purposeful attempt by Europeans rulers to extend their royal or dynostic control over all aspects of life in the lands they ruled
William Harvey
Showed that the heart was the beginning of the blood's circulation.
Glorious Revolution
No bloodshed in England - James fled England and gave up the throne.
Age of Reason
era when people applied scientific knowledge and reason to issues of law and government.
Constitutional Monarchy
System in which a monarch is limited by laws and had to share power with Parliament or another law-making body.
Heliocentric
Theory that sun is center of the universe.
Scientific Method
It is a way to ask and answer scientific questions by making observations and doing experiments.
Charles II
Disliked for support of Catholism.
Montesquieu
French political philosopher who advocated the separation of executive and legislative and judicial powers (1689-1755)
Thomas Hobbes
Philosopher who argued that man was sinful and needed to be controlled
Nicolaus Copernicus
Stated Heliocentric(sun-centered) theory of the universe.
Oliver Cromwell
Ruled England as Lord Protector until 1658; Dictator.

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