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us hist ch. 27


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Jiang Jieshi
President of the Republic of China; helped by US to fight Japan
national security policy to stop nations from falling to communist (soviet) side; scared of "domino effect"
Cold War
"War" between US and Soviet Union; battle of words, propaganda, competition in science, weaponry, and culture.
The only real bond that US, Britain, and Soviet Union had was:
their opposition to Nazi Germany
Decision made in three conferences (Teheran, Yalta, Potsdam) laid the groundwork for the Cold War by diving Europe into 2 specific sphere of political influence:
communits and democratic
Teheran Conference 1943
Joseph Stalin, FDR, and Winston Churchill (British Prime Minister) meet; Stalin agreed to bring USSR into war against Japan once Germany is defeated. US and Britain agree to open a second front in france, thus forcing Nazis to divide their army
Yalta Conference 1945 February
Stalin, FDR, Churchill; trying to come to agreement on who will control what lands in post-WWII Eastern Europe. They disagree with eachother. Finally agreed for free general elections held in the region's nations asap
Potsdam Conference 1945 July
Stalin, Harry Truman (FDR died), Clement Atlee (Churchill defeated in electtion); still disagreeing over Germany, Eastern Europe. Stalin will only offer vague assurance about free elections
Soviet satellite nations
Smaller nations controlled by a larger one; Stalin had forced Communist dictatorships on Eastern European nations (Poland, Romania, Bulgaria, Hungary) Others in Yugoslavia, Czech, and Albania.
"iron curtain"
Phrase coined by Winston Churchill. The "iron curtain" divided a free and democratic West with the totalitarian East
Soviet Bloc/Communist Bloc/Eastern Bloc
the Easter European communist nations (USSR); opposite of Western Bloc/"Free World" Bloc
Division of Berlin:
Berlin divided into 4 occupation sectors. British, French, US, and USSR. Became known as area of West Germany
Truman Doctrine
Policy by President Truman that aimed to support any free nation trying to resist being forcibly taken over by another power; very successful; ex: Greece and Turkey
Marshall Plan 1947
US give economic aid ($13 bilion) to Western European nations so nations can recover from WWII; very successful; helped stabilize European economy
Berlin Airlift
When USSR blocked all access routes betwen Berlin and the Western occupation zones in June 1948, US made the Berlin Airlift; it flew food, fuel and supplies into the West part of Berlin; Result: USSR reopened access to routes May 1949
1949, Western Allies establish ____ Germany, Soviets respond by creating ____ germany
West, East
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) 1949
12 Western nations & Greece and Turky (later 1952) & West Germany (1955); Established to coordinate activities of the alliance and to counter any acts of Soviet/Communist expanision in Europe; If one nation is sattacked, the others will help it
Warsaw Pact 1955
Soviets response to NATO; Military alliance of USSR with Albania, Bulgaria, Czech, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, and Romania
Mao Zedong
leader of People's Republic of China (1949); friendly with USSR; for Communism
Kim Il-Sung
leader of North Korea (1949); friendly with USSR; for Communism
Korean War 1950-153
When North Korea attacked South Korea because North wanted South to be communist. United Nations, led by US, goes to war on South side. North Korea recieves help and weapons from USSR. Result: ends in a stalemate
Battle at Inchon
General Douglas MacArthur engineered a brilliant attack; Successful; Force communist armies to retreat; results in stalemate in fighting
Who was president after Truman?
Dwight Eisenhower
Southeast Asian Treaty Organization (SEATO) 1954
Expands the Western anti-communist alliance system; made by Eisenhower 1954; modeled after NATO, justified by domino theory; US, Britain, France, Australia, New Zealand, Phillipines, Thailand, Pakistan
Nikita Khrushchev
New Soviet leader after TSalin dies in 1953. Adopts a policy called "Peaceful Coexistence" (based on policy of peaceful competition between East and West that would be based on greater acheivement)
Geneva Summit 1955
When President Eisenhower, leaders of Great Britain and France, and Krushchev hold a summit in Switzerland; breakthrough in trying to resolve East-West tensions during Cold War.
Berlin Wall
closed off border between free area and communist area; aimed to prevent East Germans from escaping to the West; viewed as symbol of Communist oppression
Suez Crisis
Nasser tries to nationalize the Suez Canal, leds to war. Britain and France (own the canal) attack Egypt and Israel joins. US mad at Britain and France for acting without conulting with US. Pressure from US and UN result in ceasefire and removal of foreig
Eisenhower Doctrine 1957
President Eisenhower say that US will send armed forces to any nation in Middle East that asked for help against Communist threats. Successfu at Lebanon 1958
Fidel Castro
led a successful revolution against Cuban government; was first supported by US but later not when Castro started getting stronger ties with USSR

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