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r050 mid-term


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why were the native americans the first that the europeans looked to to help build the nation?
they were already there
what were the 3 main reasons why the native americans weren't good laborers?
1.diseases from the europeans started killing of the native americans
2.the work that native amerc. were asked to do was contrary to their beliefs (land was sacred)
3.native amerc. knew their land. they were aware of their surroundings and knew how to navigate the land
who were the next, 2 sets of people that the europeans looked to to help build the nation after the native americans?
the european't that were poor then the europeans that were prisoners
the european poor and the prisoners were thought of what type of servants? how long did they have to serve?
they were thought of as indentured servants. they had to serve 5-7yrs.
what were the 3 main reasons why european poor and prisoners did not end up working out?
1.the group had to be replenished frequently b/c they only had to work 5-7yrs
2.many didn't stay b/c it was to much work
3.many would escape earlier than suppose to and just blend in with other european groups.
what was the main reasons why prisoners volunteered to work?
they wanted land and freedom
after european poor and prisoners didn't work out, who did europeans look to next and why (2 main reasons)?
1.europeans were in africa and africans were in europe, so they were familiar with them
2.they proved to be profitable and successful
how were africans treated in the beginning?
they were treated as indentured servants...some were given land
what were the 3 stages of the slave trade?
1.capturing and conditioning
2.middle passage
3.seasoning process
from the beginning, how were the europeans able to catch the africans?
members of the trading companies would talk to the African chiefs to set up trading posts. (a place to pick up africans)
africans were held in what, while they waited to be packed on the boat?
negro houses
the chief would provide the africans and land in exchange for what?
beads, whiskey, guns, and gun powder
what are the five elements of a contract?
4.capacity(ability to enter into contract)
why would the african's own chief capture other africans to give to the members of the trading companies, besides the fact that he would recieve material items?
to protect his own tribe. the tribes were fighting amoungst those pple weren't the chiefs pple. they were his enemies
what was the benifit of recieving the material items that the trading companies gave them in exchange for africans?
1.guns & gun powder-gave ttribe power
2.whiskey-a means of medicine (kills bacteria)
3.beads-showed their status
what is a caboceer?
middle man that was responsible for obtaining africans. appointed by the chief
what were the conditions of the negro houses (size, how long were africans kept there,# of pple, seperation?)
-6x8 ft
-3-7 days
-could hold 20-25 pple, but would hold more sometimes
-seperated by tribes, families
what were the 7 things that took place in the 1st stage, capturing and conditioning?
1.seperated families
2.seperated tribes (can't communicate)
3.took away their names
4.chained pple together so they can't run away and takes away basic right of movement
5.used the whip
6.africans were branded on back
7.would sometimes kill them
what 2 purposes did the whip serve?
1.install fear
2.serve as a form of deterance (other's wouldn't try)
what were the 5 things that chacacterize the 2nd stage, middle passage?
1.took 8-10 weeks
2.boat was built to hold 300-500 pple, but packed 800
3.disease spread rampadly, pple commited suicide, would some were thrown overboard
4.african's would go on
hunger strikes, which in
turn would cause the owners to break their teeths and force them to eat
5.estimated that 20% died at this time
where did the seasoning process take place, what type of plantation and how long would each process take?
-take place in west indies on sugar plantations
-3-4 yrs
why did africans have to go thru the middle passage and the seasoning process?
b/c colonists didn't want raw slave...wanted them to comply
who were the overseers?
they could have been white or balck people...the actual owners weren't there
what was the approximate death rate for the seasoning process and what was the estimate of the number of africans who actually became slaves and sent to america?
-30% ~ death rate for seasoning process
-50%~ # of pple that were sent to america
what were the 5 main reasons why so many africans died during the seasoning process?
1.the whip
3.poor food
why was a law passed during the seasoning process and was it enforced?
overcrowding on the shipwas so wasn't enforced
why couldn't accurate figures be kept during the seasoning process?
it was written on paper
what conclusions could be drawn from the # of africans imported into the new world from 1861- 1979 (four centuries)during the seasoning process
each century the numbers increased, but decreased from the 18th century to the 19th century.
why was their a decrease in the number of africans imported into the new world from the 18 to 19th centrury?
1.civil war (slavery was abolished)
2.1808 statue was passed that prohibited the importation of africans to the u.s.
for centuries, what type of blacks were taken/ left africa?
the strongest, youngest, and the best
what were the chracteristics of the negro houses?what was the impact on africans?
-6x8 ft
-3-7 days
-could hold 20-25 pple, were packed w/ more
-seperated by tribes and families
what were the 7 methods used in the 1st stage of capturing and conditioning?
1.seprated by families
2.seperated by tribe
3.change thier names
4.chained together (can't runaway and takes away basic right of movement)
5.whip was used
6.were branded on the back
what 2 purposes did the whip have?
1. instill fear
2. served as a form of deterance..other's wouldn't try
what were the 5 things that chracterized the middle passage?
1.would take 8-10 weeks
2.boat was built to hold 300-500 pple, but would be packed w/ 800
3.disease spread rapidly, pple committed suicide, pple were thrown overboard
4.estimated 20% died during this time
5.african's would go on hunger strikes making the owners break their teeth to force them to eat
where did the seasoning process take place and how long was each process?
-west indies
-3-4 yrs
the overseers were the white owners. T/F
no they could have been white or black...and the actual owners were not there
about what percentage of africans died during this process? total amount that died during this process and the 2nd stage?
what were the 5 reasons that africans died during the seasoning process?
3.poor food
overcrowding on the ship during the seasoning process got so bad that what happened?
britain/parliament had to pass a law that limted the # of people on the ship...was not enforced
what can u conclude from the numbers of africans imported into the new world from 1861-1969 (4 centuries)?
the numbers increased each century except from the 18th to 19th century b/c of the civil war (abolished slavery) and the 1808 statue passed that prohibited the the importation of african's to the u.s.
what type of africans were taken/ left africa?
the best, strongest, and youngest.
in 1790 during the seasoning process on christophers island laws were made to control the africans psychologically. why?
there were 20x as many blacks as whites (just like in the west iindies)
in 1667, this act was passed but only had jurisdiction on british plantation...?
"An act to regulate the negroes on the British plantation"
slaves were thought to be wild, barbarous, and savage in nature to be controlled w/ strick severity, for what reason (seasoning process)?
b/c they didn't practice the same religion.
the satutes during the seasoning process prohibited what 3 things concerning slaves?
1.could not leave the plantation w/o a pass
2.could not be away on sunday b/c of church
3.could not carry any weapons
what were the 2 consequences during the seasoning process if a slave strikes a christian?
1.severely whipped
2.2nd offense, would be branded on the face so that they can be ridiculed by other whites and blacks
the french black code was called what?
code noir
according to the french black code, if there were pple suspected to be involved in conspiracy...what would happen?
- all limbs would be broken
-person would be beaten with a scafold
-then would be put on a wheel in the open sun until they die
-once they were dead the head would be cut of and put on a tall pole
the idea that everyone comes to a common area to watch someone get a beating is called what?
common flogging
what are the 3 geograghical regions concerning colonial slavery?
southern, middle, new england
which states were considered part of the south?
virginia,maryland,n&s carolina,& georgia
why was the south considered more prevalent?
b/c of agriculture and weather
1619 in virginia, the first 20 africans were brought to james town. technically they were not considered slaves.
T/F and what type of law is this considered?
true...treated as endentured servants(treated the same as whites)
-common law
what was another name for slaves in the south?
in 1640 in VA, what was the court situation that arose and what type of law is this considered ?
-2 whites and 1 black engaged in running away. 2 whites had to serve 1 extra yr, black has to serve for the rest of his life in VA or any where he goes.
-case law b/c judge ordered it
in 1661, the stautory law in VA made what known?
recoginition of slavery
in 1662, the statutory law stated what, concerning children?
the staus of the child depended on the status of the mother
in 1680, the VA black code stated what2 things? negro or slave may carry arms
2.can't leave plantation w/o a certificate. only on necesary occasions
in 1680, the VA black code stated what penalties?
-20 lashes on bare back, well laid on
-30 lashes if negro lifts hand to christian
-may be killed
in 1705, the VA statutory law states that all negro, mulatto, and indian slaves shall be held to be what?
-real estate (real property) and not chattel (personal property)
-slaves are held to be fee simple (owners have unlimited power to do whatever w/ slave..can sell, hurt them, renovate, give them away)
slavery in maryland started the same time as virginia.
-1634 there was a common law of slavery
in 1663 what was significant about the recognition of slavery in maryland?
-it was a statutory law
-all blacks were said to be slaves
in 1681, maryland amended their law to saw what?
black children of white woman and free black women are free
the idea that the owner gives his slave freedom is called what and where did this exist?
-existed in the new england and middle colonies
what were the 2 reasons a owner would grant his slave freedom in the middle andd new england colonies?
-reward for some type of act(i.e saving the owners life)
-in recognition of long and faithful which it would be put in his will
what was New York's black code?
-blacks could take up the white religion, but it was not a grounds for them to claim freedom
-slaves could not testify against whites
in pennsylvania, what were the 2 religious groups that were influential in discouraging slavery?
quakers and german mennonites
in 1688, the first recorded official protest against slavery was conducted in what state?
in 1700, the "Act for the trial of Negroes" did what? and in which state?
-set up seperate courts for free and black slaves
what were the 3 things that the pennsylvania black code stated?
1.could not meet in groups larger than 4
2.could not carry a gun or weapon w/o a license from master
3.could be stopped on street and imprisoned if they didn't have a ticket from master
in 1790 it was said that pennylvania had many free blacks...about what fraction was said to be free?
in 1780, pennsylvania passed an act that had to do with abolishing slavery...what was the name on the act?
"an act for the gradual abolition of slavery"
what was the primary intrest in the new england colonies and why?
trade b/c they did not have large plantations, therefore they did not have as many balck slaves
in 1700, new england was said to have the least amount of slaves, so what didn't they have to worry about?
up rising b/c whites out numbered the blacks
what were the 3 black codes in the new england colonies?
1.could not serve in the military
2.could not pass town limits w/o a pass to associate w/ other blacks, indians, and whites (less restrictive)
what were the justifications whites told themselves for treating blacks in the manner that they did?
1.they are not humans
2.biblical references
3.not christians (savages)
4.better off enslaved
5.the law says it is okay(legal)
what were the reason's blacks were chosen?
1. larger population
2.easily identifiable
3.profitable (didn't have to replace as frequently)
in the carolinas the 4 owners of he land were mambers of what? what would they do in exchange for the purchasing of one of their slaves?
-the royal african company
-20 acres for every black male slave
10 acres for every black female
in 1686 in the carolinas, what were the 4 regukations that took place?
-blacks couldn't engage in any type of trade
-blacks couldn't leave the plantation w/o a pass
-owners couldn't work slaves more that 15 hrs per day form march 25- sept.25
-owners couldn't work slave more than 14 hrs per day from sept. 25-march 25
in south carolina, what religios group was formed?
"society for the propagation of the gospel" (SPG)
in south carolina, in what ways di they try to raise the living level of blacks and whites?
-advocated that slaves learn to read and write
-taught slaves, established schools, had black teachers
what was radical about slaves learning how to read and write in south carolina?
-slaves could write thier own passes...and when owner would put up ads lookin for them , they would know.
what were the 3 main points/ chracteristics of north carolina?
1.there were regular meetings between slaves and slave holders
2.urged that slaves be used well
3.1770 they sought prhibition against slavery
in 1773, the beginning, georgia prohibited what 2 things?
alcohol and slavery
in 1750 georgia repealed prohibition against slavery and in 1755 adopted the black code. it was said to be just like s. carolina except?
-slaves were prohibited from learning how to read or write.

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