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Mark's EPPP Flashcards


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Crisis counseling usually lasts . . .
1-3 months, or until client is stabilized and can resume normal functioning.
Program management involves ____ and ____
Integrating teaching and counseling skills.
In multimodal therapy, what does the areas of functioning acronym BASIC ID stand for?
Biology, Affect, Sensations, Images, Cognitions, Interpersonal Relations, Drugs (Biology).
What is it called when you conform to gain approval?
Normative social influence.
What is it called when you conform because you believe that others have more information than you?
Informational Social Influence.
Who developed the Multimodal Life History?
What is the Multimodal Life History?
An extensive written questionnaire that asks about background, history, presenting problems, and the seven areas of functioning (BASIC ID).
For fear induction to work in advertising and PSAs, what are the three factors that must be present in the message?
Must engender a lot of fear, audience must believe the message, instructions for avoiding the danger must be present.
In Bandura's social-cognitive theory, what is the meaning of self-efficacy?
It is a person's belief in their ability to organize and perform the actions required to produce a desired outcome.
What is self-efficacy based on according to Bandura?
Personal performance, vicarious experiences, verbal persuasion, and physiological and emotional factors.
Does the DSM-IV classify people?
Absolutely not - it classifies disorders people have, not the people themselves.
What is quality assurance and control as it relates to clinical practice?
Ensuring all client files are accurate and up-to-date.
What is the role of the Occupational Outlook Handbook in career counseling?
Valuable source of information about careers, outlook/forecast of each career, potential salary, where jobs of this type may be found, educational requirements, etc. Many career counselors consider it the foremost resource in researching careers.
What are three essential skills needed for a clinician?
Having respect for the client, encouraging optimism in seeking a realistic solution, and excellent communication skills.
What are the two basic types of managers, identified by their different assumptions about human nature?
Theory X - Negative toward their employees, always looking for the wrong.

Theory Y - Take a positive outlook toward their employees, always look for (and find) the best in each one.

What are the three actions recommended by Sweeny to form a therapeutic relationship?
(1) Focus on the present instead of the past or future.
(2) Focus on behavior rather than the person
(3) Focus on what is being learned, rather than the lack of learning.

What is the Halo Effect?
In the evaluation of employees, the tendency to rate individuals either too high or too low on the basis of one outstanding trait.
What are the six elements of a case formulation in cognitive therapy?
(1) List of problems or concerns
(2) Hypotheses about the core belief or schema.
(3) Relationship of this belief to current problems.
(4) Precipitants of current problems.
(5) Background relevant to core belief.
(6) Anticipated treatment obstacles.

What are Kelly's three criteria for making attributions?
(1) Consistency
(2) Consensus
(3) Distinctiveness

According to Kelly, when do we tend to make external attributions?
When consistency, consensus, and distinctiveness are all high.
According to Kelly, when do we tend to make internal attributions?
When consensus and distinctiveness are low and consistency is high.
Which of the following client factors is unrelated to treatment outcome?
a) SES status
b) intelligence
c) age
d) education

c) age
What is the Million Behavioral Health Inventory?
A brief, self-report personality inventory designed to help the clinician assess psychological coping factors related to the physical health care of adult medical patients.
What is the Fundamental Attribution Error?
A mistake in judging the causes of others' behavior that comes from the tendency to overestimate internal, personal factors and underestimate external, situational factors.
What are the three phases of Stress Inoculation Training?
(1) Conceptualization
(2) Skills Acquisition
(3) Application and Follow-Through.

What characteristics indicate a person will benefit from REBT?
Externally oriented, well-educated, intelligent, articulate.
What is role induction?
Familiarizing the client with the nature of counseling, with their responsibilities in this collaborative process, and with the kinds of changes that can be realistically expected from treatment.
What is overgeneralization?
When a person draws sweeping conclusions that are not justified by the evidence.
What is all-or-nothing thinking?
Viewing a situation in terms of extremities, such as, "Either I am completely good or completely bad."
What is catastrophizing?
Predicting a negative outcome without considering other possibilities.
What is disqualifying the positive?
Focusing only on negative information, ignoring any positive input.
What are two useful techniques associated with multimodal therapy?
Bridging and tracking.
Who developed the stages of self-concept?
In Developmental Counseling and Therapy (DCT), the sensorimotor environmental structuring is a process that ___.
Provides direction, promotes awareness and direct experience, focuses attention on the here and now, and minimizes denial and splitting. Interventions used in this stage include Gestalt empty chair, body work, relaxation, and guided imagery.
What is a CRC?
Certified Rehabilitation Counselor
What are the three primary areas of interest for I/O psychologists?
(1) Human factors
(2) Personnel
(3) Organizational psychology

Gestalt therapy is well-suited for treating people with eating disorders. True or false?
I do well on an exam and think, "I really studied." I do poorly on an exam and blame the instructor, textbook or "tricky" questions. What is this an example of in attribution theory?
Self-serving bias.
What mental health diagnosis is most prevalent in children under 10?
What is the QOLI?
Quality of Life Inventory
What are the five types of therapeutic alliances?
(1) Transpersonal
(2) I-You
(3) Working alliances
(4) Reparative relationships
(5) Transferential/Countertransferential relationships.

Who created the Archway Model of Career Determinates Theory?
Donald Super
What are the five stages of the Archway Model of Career Determinates Theory?
(1) Growth
(2) Exploration
(3) Establishment
(4) Maintenance
(5) Decline

What is the Dyadic Trust Scale?
In couples therapy, an eight-item questionnaire that takes less than three minutes to fill out and focuses on the level of trust between marriage partners.
What three components make up all attitudes?
Cognitive, Affective, Behavioral
What are the six vocational types in Holland's career theory?
(1) Realistic
(2) Investigative
(3) Artistic
(4) Social
(5) Enterprising
(6) Conventional

What is activity scheduling?
Used by cognitive therapists to elicit new cognitions in their clients by giving people the opportunity to try out new behaviors and ways of thinking and encouraging them to remain active despite feelings of sadness or apprehension. Skydiving or skiing are examples of activities that could be scheduled.
"My physician didn't call me to tell me the test results. She probably has bad news and doesn't want to tell me" is an example of what kind of distorted thinking?
Jumping to conclusions
What does Human Factors Psychology address?
The ways to improve the structure and design of machines and the work environment to better meet the needs of human users.
What are the two major forms of social influence?
(1) Conformity
(2) Obedience
Attractive actors/actresses and popular sports stars are paid lots of money to endorse certain products because advertisers know that we want to be as cool, beautiful, or popular as they are. What is this major factor in conformity called?
Reference groups
Language plays an important part in Gestalt therapy, such as the use of ___ and ___ questions.
What and how questions
What does DMFT stand for?
Doctor of Marriage and Family Therapy
What is an LPsy?
EU and Latin American equivalent of the American PsyD.
A person who scores highly in the Realistic area of Holland's vocational types is someone who ___.
Likes to work with their hands, machines, and tools.
What was the focus of Structuralism?
Structuralism focused on the sensations and feelings of conscious experience and established the importance of studying the mental process.
What are the three theories of worker motivation?
(1) Goal-setting theory
(2) Equity theory
(3) Expectancy theory

What is Equity Theory?
Theory of worker motivation that employees prefer jobs in which the output is equal to the input. If imbalances occur, workers adjust their input, output, or psychological perceptions.
What is the underlying theory of Brief Solution-Based Therapy?
Small behavioral changes lead to larger changes that have ripple effects on the whole system.
What is a working alliance?
Focuses on shared goals and an agreement to engage in certain tasks to achieve those goals.
What is a transpersonal therapeutic alliance?
Communicate to the client the sense that therapy is a shared journey leading to personal growth.
What is an I-You therapeutic alliance?
Emphasize immediacy and mutuality in the therapeutic relationship, with the clinician serving as a role model.
What is a reparative therapeutic alliance?
Most often used with severely damaged clients and offers reparenting and nurturing in an effort to compensate for deprivation in an earlier relationship.
What is the goal of Gestalt therapy?
To help people acknowledge important parts of themselves they have "cut off," such as emotions, bodies, or contact with others. Successful therapy restores a sense of wholeness or balance.
Research shows that clients in therapy are ____ percent better off than those placed on a waiting list or not treated.

What is the meaning of the Old French word "desvolper?"
To unwrap or unfold. This is the origin of the English word "development."
What is the name for the insightful, creative thinking that may or may not score well on traditional IQ tests?
Experiential intelligence
What is the name for the quality of focusing on a key feature rather than on the whole object (looking at someone's eyeglasses instead of the whole face)?

What is the main principle underlying Guthrie's Law of Learning?
Contiguity - A combination of stimuli which has accompanied a movement on its recurrence tend to be followed by that movement.
What is Guthrie's one-trial learning?
In the first instance of a stimulus situation, a person makes a complete association. Thus, it predicts that you will likely respond to a stimulus the same way that worked previously.
What did Guthrie believe was NOT important to the process of learning?
What are the four stages of cognitive development according to Piaget, and what are their corresponding age ranges?
(1) Sensorimotor (birth to 2)
(2) Preoperational (2 to 7)
(3) Concrete operational (7 to 12)
(4) Formal operational (12+)

According to Piaget, what is one of the defining tasks of the Sensorimotor stage?
The development of object permanence
According to Piaget, what are some of the defining characteristics associated with the preoperational stage?
Egocentrism and centration.
According to Piaget, what is one of the most prominent developments during the concrete operational stage?
Conservation - the ability to understand that the underlying properties of an object may not change just because its physical appearance has.
According to Piaget, what are some of the defining characteristics of the formal operational stage?
Hypothetical-deductive reasoning, imaginary audience, personal fable
What is heteronomous morality?
According to Piaget's theory of moral development, the stage between ages 4 and 7 when rules are viewed as absolute and unchangeable, and judgments are based mainly on the consequences of the act.
What is autonomous morality?
According to Piaget's theory of moral development, when children between 7 and 8 view rules as flexible agreements between individuals, and judgments are based more on the actor's intentions.
What are Kohlberg's three levels of moral development?
(1) Preconventional
(2) Conventional
(3) Post-conventional

How does Kohlberg characterize the preconventional level of moral development?
Morality based on consequences.
(1) Avoiding punishment through obedience
(2) Morality satisfies own needs

How does Kohlberg characterize the conventional level of moral development?
Morality based on existing social norms.
(3) Maintaining approval of others
(4) Obeying society's laws

How does Kohlberg characterize the post-conventional level of moral development?
Morality based on self-chosen principles
(5) Recognizes laws can be changed
(6) Fundamental universal ethical principles

Who is the theorist who believed that an individual's own concepts or constructs are created by the individual in an effort to understand the individual environment?

C. Kelly
What does "outcomes control" refer to?
Outcomes Control refers to the fact that consequences of behavior, including all reinforcing feedback concerning the appropriateness of the behavior, affect future behavior.

Who asserted that "neurosis is the outworking of basic anxiety?"
Karen Horney
What are Kegan's six stages of life span development?
(1) incorporative,
(2) impulsive,
(4) interpersonal,
(5) institutional and
(6) interindividual stage.

What are Loevinger's nine stages of ego development?
(1) Presocial stage
(2) Impulsive stage
(3) Self-protective stage
(4) Conformist stage
(5) Self-aware stage
(6) Conscientious stage
(7) Individualistic stage
(8) Autonomous stage
(9) Integrated stage

What is it called when someone repeats words spoken by others in their presence?
What did Piaget mean by adaptation?
Adaptation occurs as a child interacts with the environment and subsequently develops organized ways of thinking about the world (cognitive schemas).
What did Piaget mean by assimiliation?
Assimilation occurs when a child perceives and interprets new information in terms of existing schemas.
What did Piaget mean by accommodation?
Accommodation occurs when existing schemas must be modified to provide consistency with external reality.
What did Piaget mean by equilibrium?
Piaget believed humans were biologically driven to produce an optimal state of stability between their cognitive structures and their environment, which he termed equilibrium, which he believed was necessary for cognitive development to occur.
In Loevinger's stages of ego development, in which stage can the infant not distinguish between self and non-self?
Symbiotic stage
Who asserted that the ego is present from birth and does not arise out of the id?
According to Harry Stack Sullivan, what are the three modes of experience?
(1) Protaxic
(2) Parataxic
(3) Syntaxic

According to Sullivan, what is the protaxic mode of experience?
Flowing sensations - the infant has no concept of time or space
What are the stages of Kohlberg's moral development?
(1) Obedience and punishment driven
(2) Self-interest driven
(3) Interpersonal accord and conformity driven
(4) Authority and social order obedience driven
(5) Social contract driven
(6) Universal ethical principles driven

What is primary vicarious conditioning?
When a model goes through classical or instrumental conditioning while the observer watches the stimulus, response, and consequence.
Watson believed that the infant is a blank slate. What are the three emotions he believed the infant is born with?
Fear, love, and rage
What are William Perry's stages of intellectual development for college students?
(1) Dualism/received knowledge
(2) Multiplicity/subjective knowledge
(3) Relativism/procedural knowledge
(4) Commitment/constructed knowledge

Who believed that learning occurs in an all-or-nothing fashion?
Who was the first theorist to propose a theory of sociopathic development?

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