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British History Terms-- 18th-21st Centuries


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Wolfe Tone
-truly felt the wave of revolution after French rev.
-felt that constitutional change not fast enough
-founder of United Irishmen: organization to agitate for parliamentary reform and egalitarian ideals
-1795 United Irishmen reconstituted as a secret society with aim to est. a republic of Ireland
Henry Grattan
-statesman/orator who pressed for Irish independence
-secured amendment to Poyning’s law which placed Irish parliament under London
-later worked for relaxation of penal laws
Steam Engine
-invented by James Watt, Scottish inventor/industrialist for manufacturing machinery
-allowed motor movement without a water wheel
-allowed for factories to relocate away from water sources and closer to high populations for cheap labor
-eventually led to railroads
Adam Smith
-wrote wealth of nations
-believed market’s invisible hand would lead to proper pricing
-opposed gov’t interference in market (list ways gov’t can interfere with market)
The Indian Mutiny
-May 1857
-Bengal Army shot at British Officers and marched to Delhi to restore Mughal empire
-spark: animal fat used to grease gun cartridges
-Dec 1857
-Power restored to British
Maj. General Gordon
-briliant commander and administrator
-successful general in china during opium wars
-famous for slave trade suppression
-evacuated 2600 civilians during Mahdist revolt
Daniel O’Connell
-referred to as the greatest leader of Catholic Ireland, “the liberator”
-from catholic upper class, became successful barrister
-originally focused on catholic middle classes to have greater representation (wanted voting catholics to be able to run for office)
-1823: founds the catholic association to mobilize the peasant opinion: repeal union, bring land reform, end the tithes, cost is 1 penny…. Raised 20,000 pounds in first year
-ran for election with a great deal of support from whigs and catholic land owners, but denied seat b/c he is a catholic
-O’Connell’s election causes a crisis in London: see Ireland closer to moving towards civil war
Trade Unions
-Guilds designed to lock in local markets for the advantage of one craft in one town-
in great decline after the 16th century.
-Provided benefits to members to ensure employment stability and aid in the event of death/sickness/unemployment.
-Emerged in the 18th century due to the Industrial Revolution
-Act as defensive organizations set up to counteract the economic weakness of propertyless wage-earners as unorganized individuals.
-Combination Acts directed against trade unions when the government feared unrest and revolution.
-Trade Union Congress founded in 1868 with the purpose of holding national conferences on trade union activities.
-1871- set up a Parliamentary Committee to advance the interests of unions with members of Parliament.
-From 1889 onwards, it became more politically militant and in 1900 helped to found the Labor Representation committee, known from 1906 on as the Labour Party, with whom it has had links ever since.
Franco-Prussian War
-(1870-71) Louis Napoleon (nephew of Napoleon) France’s president
-sought to aggrandize t French position in Europe and overseas
-Prussia was to unify Germany, but saw France as an obstacle, French had policy of playing Austria and the souther catholic German States off of protestant Prussia
-Prussia led by Otto von Bismarck attacks France
Battle of the Somme
-German high command resolved to take Verdun
-Anglo-French forces wanted to crash beyond the Somme River
-Neither succeeded, 2 million wiere killed.
David Lloyd-George
-Prime Minister: 1916-22
-Tried to convince the British that their sacrifices [in WWI] were reaping tangible victories
-Made the decision to wait for the Americans to arrive in Belgium during WWI
Treaty of Versailles (1919)
-Agreed to territorial changes in Europe and abroad by great powers
-formed League of Nations
-Germany had military restrictions: less than 100,000 in standing army and no heavy artillery air forces
-Germany had to accept all responsibility for outbreak of war
-Germany had to power enormous reparations which it could not keep up the payments
Easter Rising
Some members of the IRB were committed to the Romantic Nationalist movement-- and believed that Ireland needed a "blood sacrifice" in order to rise up.
-The intent was not to succeed-- by not surviving, they would be victorious.
-The IRB and Clan na Gael do not support-- they seek German aid.
-April 24, 1916-- Easter Monday-- Pearse and a group of IRB supporters stage attacks throughout central Dublin
-800 men appear, and no more than 1500 were involved.
-Rebels catch the British garrison by surprise-- almost take Dublin Castle and the under secretary for Irish affairs; capture the Four counts, Dublin City Hall, St. Stephen's green and the General Post Office.
-The General Post Office was command headquarters of the rebellion, which lasted 6 days
-Government proclaims martial law and gets 12,000 troops into Dublin by the end of the week-- GPO shelled by artillery-- Conolly wounded.
-Rebels surrender on April 28th-- 450 dead and 2500 wounded
-16 rebel leaders executed within 2 weeks-- including Perase and his brother.
-The First Home Rule Bill of 1886 created an alliance which was to defeat constitutional nationalism.
-Anglican landlords were afraid that an Irish parliament would bring about land reform
-Die hard tories were concerned about the disintegration of the Empire
-Presbyterian Protestants of Ulster were concerned about a Parliament dominated by Catholics, who would be controlled from Rome.
-The Army was afraid of losing control from Rome
-The Unionists were not necessarily Presbyterian Protestants-- they were from an array of different denminations as well as Social classes.
-The solid core of Unionsim was in Ulster, where Presbyterians made up 1/2 of the 9 countries.
-Unionists decided to fight at any cost-- politically, the tories decide to use unionist v otes to further their own ends-- to the etent that Tory = unionist.
-The Tories block the 2nd Home Rule Bill in 1896-- the overwhelmingly Torly lord vetoes the bill in 1893 (?).. in 1911 the liberal government takes away the right of veto from the lords.
-In 1912-- 3rd Home Rule Bill is Introduced-- it seems as if it will overcome Parliamentary Hurdles
-1914-- Unionists argue that there were two nations in Ireland (Protestant and Catholic) and that the Home Rulers only represented one of these.
-Radical Ulster elements arm serves and vow to ffight any attempt at Home Rule.
Skyes-Picot Agreement
1916: British government promised Ottoman-ruled lands via a secret treaty signed between Britain, France and Russia.
-Iraq split between three zones, with Britain ruling oil-rich lower Iraq directly as a supply base for it's navy.
Balfour Declaration
-1917-- pledged a future Jewish 'homeland' in the British zone of Palestine.
-Holocaust caused a great deal of Jewish immigration to Palestine in late 30’s and 40’s, by 1944, Jews were 30% of population
-Britain encouraged Arab nationalism, Arab nationalists opposed Jewish settlement which led to violence
-Britain unsure of position and takes argument to UN
-UN decides that Jews and Palestinians should split the land
- Many Arab-Israeli wars Israel attacked by coalitions of Arab states
-Israle is believed to have nuclear capabilities
Commonwealth of Nations
-loose federation of Britain and her former colonies scattered across the globe
-term commonwealth grew out of realization that several of Briatin’s colonies were essentially self-governing
-First WW caused more states to seek autonomy from Britain esp. in foreign matters
-1920’s dominion status defined and colonies of European Settlement given dominion status (can make own policies)
-1947 India admitted into commonwealth
-all dominions recognize british crown as ceremonial head of state
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi
-Indian national and spiritual leader
-Lawyer-- in 1893 he was sent to South Africa to help the case of an Indian client
-1894- becomes involved in protest movement against disenfranchisement and withdrawal of civil rights from the Asian immigrant community.
-Leader of protests in S. Africa, uniting the Indian community in S. Africa
-Emphasized peaceful marches and non-violent acts of defiance.
-Believed every person had an inner voice that was the voice of God
-Truth could only be obtained by listening to the voice.
-Faith in the inner voice formed the basis of political beliefs.
Appeasement had evolved steadily as the foreign policy of the National Government from 1931-36
-Policy Objective: The pacification of Europe
-Acheived through negotiating a European and general settlement that would replace Versallies and bring Germany into satisfactory treaty relations with all her neighbors.
-A policy that sought to bring about genuine peace in Europe by removing all sources of greivance in a Europe-wide agreement to which Germany would also make appropriate contributions.
-Was not a cowardly policy of surrender and unilateral concession, or a sell out, as it was later described.
Battle of Britain
-18 June 1940: Churchill felt that Battle of Britian about to begin b/c Battle of France was over
-2 July: Hitler ordered planning of German invasion of Britain, but wanted them to submit to Germany peacefully
-Germans felt that they had to win in the air against RAF for successful invasion
-13 August: Germany begins battle and destroys airfields and aircraft and came close to defeat
-September, Germans lost 84 aircraft over London
-Divided from India in 1947-- fought three wars over Kashmir against India in 1947- 49, 1965 and 1970-71. Kashmir was controlled by India but had a muslim majority.
-1998- India and Pakistan successfully test nuclear weapons.
-2001- Pakistani-sponsored terrorists attack India's parliament in Delhi, killing 13 members-- India mobilizes as does Pakistan-- Pakistan backs down as Musharraf pledges to peace talks.
Beveridge Report
-December 1, 1942-- the Wartime coalition government published a report entitled 'Social Insurance and Allied Services' by Sir William Beverdige
-Beveridge was an Oxford economist (1879-1963)
-The report became the basis for the welfare state
-It proposed that all working people should pay a weekly contribution to the state and in return, benefits would be paid to the unemployed, the sick, the retired and the widowed.
-Wanted to ensure an acceptable minimum standard of living in Britain
-Wrote of attacking the five giants of 'Want, disesase, ignorance, squalor and idleness.
-Report called for a free national health service, a system of children's allowances, an industrial injuries program and training programs for the unemployed.
National Health Services
-NHS Act 1946 provided free healthcare regardless of means, and created the NHS in 1948
-Established a comprehensive health service aimed at diagnosing and treating illness
-Majority of hospitals, as well as general practitioners joined the program, which was administered by regional health authorities.
-Main principle: treatment should be free at the point of delivery.
-Funded partly from national insurance, but mainly taxation
-Caused problems for all governments
Margaret Thatcher
-1925 to present, daughter of a shopkeeper
-Chemistry major at Oxford and later qualified as a barrister
-entered parliament for Finchley, N. London, she held the seat until her retirement from the house of commons in 1992
-first female PM
-longest serving PM in 20th century
-first to win 3 elections
-economic policy based on monetarism
-believes free market usually stable and government causes instability
-goals: reduce inflation rather than unemployment, privatize many public enterprises, reduce income taxes, etc.
New Labour
-Label adopted as a brand by Tony Blair
-Abandoned policy of unilateral nuclear disarmament
-Distracted itself from the trade unions
-Embraced the free market
-Recognized "social excolusion" as a principal focus-- attempted to reduce through mixture of tax changes and moralizing.
-Social Exclusion Unit set up shortly after 1977 election
-Focus on poverty and how poverty can be solved

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