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Chapter 18 Review


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Greek philosopher and scientist whose thought determined the course of Western intellectual history for two millenia.
Polish astronomer.
Tyco Brahe
Danish astronomer who discovered the supernova.
Johnnes Kepler
German astronomer who devused three laws. In 1609 he published his finding that the orbit of Mars was an ellipse and not the perfect circle hitherto presumed to be the orbit of every celestial body. This fact became the basis of the first of Kepler's three laws of planetary motion. He also determined that planets move faster as they near the Sun (second law), and in 1619 he showed that a simple mathematical formula related the planets' orbital periods to their distance from the Sun (third law).
Italian mathematician, astronomer, and physicist.

Disproved the Aristotilian theory that different bodies of different weights fall at different speeds.
Isaac Newtown
English physicist and mathematician.

Developed the laws of motion
Francis Bacon
Irish-British painter who acheived notoriety for his controversial paintings including one where Pope Innocent X is a nightmarish figure.
Rene Descartes
French mathematician, scientist, and philosopher, considered the father of modern philosophy.
Pierre Bayle
French philospher who wrote the Historical and Critical Dictionary, which was condemmed by church authorities.
Baron de Montesquieu
French philosopher and satirist whose famous work was the Spirit of the Laws.
Bernard de Fontenelle
Bernard de Fontenelle was educated in a Jesuit College in Rouen and became friends with Varignon and de l'Hôpital. He wrote on the history of mathematics and the philosophy of mathematics and science. He evaluated the works of others extremely well and his works contain a wonderful source of information about the scientists of his era.

Fontenelle's most famous work was Entretiens sur la pluralité des mondes (1686). He was elected to the Académie Française in 1691 and became permanent secretary of the Académie des Sciences from 1697. Fontenelle presented many obituary notices to the Académie, those of Newton and Leibniz being particularly notable.
John Locke
English philosopher who was an initiator of the Enlightenment in England and France, an inspirer of the U.S. Constitution, and the author of, among other works, An Essay Concerning Human Understanding.
Francois Marie Arouet (Voltaire)
one of the greatest of all French writers. Although only a few of his works are still read, he continues to be held in worldwide repute as a courageous crusader against tyranny, bigotry, and cruelty. ...
Madame du Chatelet
French mathematician and physicist who was the mistress of Voltaire.
Denis Diderot
French man of letters and philosopher who, from 1745 to 1772, served as chief editor of the Encyclopédie, one of the principal works of the Age of Enlightenment.
Baron Paul d'Holbach
French encyclopaedist and philosopher, a celebrated exponent of atheism and Materialism, whose inherited wealth allowed him to entertain many of the noted philosophers of the day, some of whom
David Hume
Scottish philosopher, historian, economist, and essayist, known especially for his philosophical empiricism and skepticism.
Marquis de Condorcet
French philosopher of the Enlightenment and advocate of educational reform. He was one of the major Revolutionary formulators of the ideas of progress, or the indefinite perfectibility of mankind.
Jean Jacques Rousseau
French philosopher, writer, and political theorist whose treatises and novels inspired the leaders of the French Revolution and the Romantic generation.
Immanuel Kant
German philosopher whose comprehensive and systematic work in the theory of knowledge, ethics, and aesthetics greatly influenced all subsequent philosophy, especially the various schools of Kantianism and Idealism.
Madame Geoffrin
French hostess whose salon in the Hôtel de Rambouillet was an international meeting place of artists and men of letters from 1749 to 1777.
Frederick II
king of Prussia (1740–86), a brilliant military campaigner who, in a series of diplomatic stratagems and wars against Austria and other powers, greatly enlarged Prussia's territories and made Prussia the foremost military power in Europe. An enlightened absolute monarch, he favoured French language and art and built a French Rococo palace
Catherine II
German-born empress of Russia (1762–96), who led her country into full participation in the political and cultural life of Europe, carrying on the work begun by Peter the Great. With her ministers she reorganized the administration and law of the…
Moses Mendelssohn
German-Jewish philosopher, critic, and Bible translator and commentator who greatly contributed to the efforts of Jews to assimilate to the German bourgeoisie.
Maria Theresa
archduchess of Austria and queen of Hungary and Bohemia (1740–80), wife and empress of the Holy Roman emperor Francis I (reigned 1745–65), and mother of the Holy Roman emperor Joseph II (reigned ...
Joseph II
Holy Roman emperor (1765–90), at first co-ruler with his mother, Maria Theresa (1765–80), and then sole ruler (1780–90) of the Austrian Habsburg dominions. An “enlightened despot,” he sought to ...
Louis XV
king of France from 1715 to 1774, whose ineffectual rule contributed to the decline of royal authority that led to the outbreak of the Revolution in 1789.
Rene de Maupeou
chancellor of France who succeeded in temporarily (1771–74) depriving the Parlements (high courts of justice) of the political powers that had enabled them to block the reforms proposed by the ministers of King Louis XV.

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