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History of Jazz test 1 notecards


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a unit of pulse
the speed or rate at which beats pass
a grouping of beats (often indicated by a time signature)
the arrangement of sounds in time (using divisions of the beat, silences, sustained sounds, etc.)
several dissimilar rhythms performed simultaneously (2 beats within 4 beats)
an accent on either the weak beat or between beats
long and connected
short, abruptly separted
robbed time (free of steady tempo)
the central pitch around which the melody and harmony gravitate
an arrangement of pitches that ascends and descends in fixed and unvarying pattern
the organization of music around a central tone (the tonic) and the scale built on that tone
the division of the octave into twelve equal pitches called semi tones (or half-steps)
equal temperament
the scale created by the semi tones of equal temperament. Anoter name for equal temperament.
chrmoatic scale
a coherent succession of single pitches, a linear concept
using the major scale for construction
using the notes of the chromatic scale
a note that does not fit in the major scale. A dissonant note that does not fit in the harmony and sounds "bluesy" (a direct link to African culture)
blue note
the movement and relationship of intervals and chords, a vertical concept (Accompaniment)
three or more notes played simultaneously
the successive movement of one chord to the next
chord progression
a repositioning or restructuring of the notes of a chord. Notes could be added and or omitted
chord voicing
1. a single playing through of the structure being used to organize the music in an imporvisation
2. a jazz solo, regardless of its length
3. the part of a pop tune performed in constant tempo and repeated several times after the verse has been
the melody or prewritten theme for a piece
the B part of an A-A-B-A compostion: also known as the channel, the release, or the inside
french- or spanish-speaking individual born in the New World
a person who has mixed French and African ancestry and was born in the New World
creole of color
a short progression within a chord progression that occurs just prior to the point at which the player must "turn around" to begin another repition of the larger progression
turnaround (turnback, turnabout)
a rhythm section style which emphasizes the first and third beats of each four-beat measure, often leaving the second and fourth beats silent in the bass; sometims called boom-chick style
two-beat style (in two)
1. a word denoting approval- "it swings" can mean it pleases me; "to swing" can mean to enjoy oneself; "he's a swinging guy" can mean he is an enjoyable person
2. the noun indciating the feeling projected by an uplifting performance of any kind of music, especially that which employs constant temp
3. the feeling projected by a jazz performance which successfully combines constant tempo, syncopation, swing eighth notes, rhythmic lift, liveliness and rhythmically cohesive group playing
4. the jazz style associate with Count Basie, Duke Ellington, Jimmie Lunceford, Benny Goodman, Art Tatum, Roy Eldridge, and Coleman Hawkins, as in the "swing era"
a short chord progression (usually only one, two, or four measures long) which is repeated many times in sequence. Often used for introductions and endings. Much jazz and pop music of the 60s and 70s used these instead of more involved chord progression
the characterist of sound which enables the listener to differentiate one instrument from another, and, in many cases, one player from another
timbre (tone color, tone quality)
an attachment which reduces an instrument's loudnes and alters its tone color
1. a popular turn-of-the-century style of written piano music involving pronounced syncopation
2. a label often applied to much pre-1920 jazz and pop music, unaccompanied solo piano style as well as band styles, improvised as well as written musci
a style of bass line in which each beat of each measure receives a separate tone, thus creating a moving sequence of quarter notes in the bass range
walking bass
the pattern a drummer plays on the ride cymbal to keep time, the most common being ding-dick-a-ding-dick-a
ride rhythm
the group of players whose band function is accompanying. This role is particularly common for pianists, bassists, and drummers, but it is not exclusive to them
rhythm section
an instrument in the drum set which brings two cymbals together by means of a foot pedal
high-hat (sock cymbal)
syncopated chording which provides improvised accompaniment for simultaneously improvised solos, flexibly complementing the rhythms and implied harmonies of the solo line
jazz musicians make up their music as they go along. Much of their music is spontaneous. It is not written down or rehearsed beforehand
famous prostitution districk known as
1. musicians would use syncopation on all kinds of different tunes and say they were
2. giving the rhythms in a piece of music distinctly syncopated feeling
1. a simple, funky style of black music separate from but coexistent with jazz; beginning at least as early as the turn of the century, probably much earlier; exemplified by such performers as Blind Melon Jefferson, Leadbelly, Lightnin' Hopkins, Muddy Wa
a piece characterized by any one or any combination of the following:
- the I-IV-I-V-I chord progression or some variation of it in a twelve-measure package
-a sad feeling
-a slow pace
- poetry in the form of paired couplets in iambic
orchestra that accompany dances; consists of violin, guitar, base vio, and one or two wind instruments. To satisfy the demands of dancers, these musicians often combined music from different sources
-traditionally differs from the chorus in tempo, mood, and harmony.
-often performed freely
-might as feel as though it is leading up to something
-usually only played once
divsion of something previously divided
AABA or ABAC and many others
reapeating the last few measures of a song
loud or soft
hear with drummers; drummers share solo with another insturment: 4 bars of drums and 4 bars of another instrument
trading fours/eights
changing the time in the middle of the tune (change the speed-double it)
doublet/ half timing
everyone stops, but the time still cotinuees, one player plays completely solo
stop time/ break
quote another person's musical idea in the solo
the art of composing, orchestrating, or arranging works for an instrumental ensemble
cornet, trumpet, flugelhorn, trombone
clarinet, soprano sax, alto sax, tenner sax, baritone sax, flue
play repetitive base line; usually in funk or rock
rhythm guitar style- play a chord on each beat
flat four
swing, rock, funk, groove, etc.
rythmic style
someone sings and someone answers back
call and response
a religous folk song of African-American origin
pick up stuff from church, sing the fields
field hollers
an usually rhythmical song sang to accompany repitious work
work songs
New Orleans
congo square
an art of arranging sounds in time so as to priduce a continuous, unified and erocative composition, as through melody, harmony, rhythm, and timbre.

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